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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.






  1. to advance, push
  2. to drive, propel

Derived terms

  • *(s)kéwd-e-ti ~ *(s)kéwd-o-nti (thematic root present)[2]
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *čáwdati
    • >? Proto-Albanian:[2]
    • >? Proto-Germanic: *skeutaną (to shoot) (disputed[4]) (see there for further descendants)
  • *(s)kud-tó-s (propelled)
  • *(s)kud-eh₂-yé-ti
Unsorted formations
  • >? Proto-Scythian: *Skuδa (shooter)[5]
    • Ancient Greek: Σκύθης (Skúthēs, Scythian) (see there for further descendants)
    • Old Persian: 𐎿𐎣 (s-k, Scythia) (see there for further descendants)
      • 𐎿𐎣𐎠 (s-k-a, Scythian) (see there for further descendants)


  1. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) “2. (s)keud-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 3, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 955
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*(s)keu̯d-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, page 560
  3. ^ Orel, Vladimir E. (1998) “Proto-Indo-European/(s)kewd-”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden, Boston, Köln: Brill, →ISBN, pages 143-144
  4. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) “*skeutan-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 445
  5. ^ Szemerényi, Oswald (1980) Four old Iranian ethnic names: Scythian – Skudra – Sogdian – Saka[1], Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, →ISBN>