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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Extended from *(s)tew- (to push, hit).



  1. to push, press
    Synonyms: *bʰedʰ-, *dʰen-, *gen-, *gremH-, *pres-, *trenkʷ-
  2. to strike, beat
    Synonyms: *bʰew-, *dʰen-, *kelh₂-, *kewh₂-, *kret-, *meldʰ-, *pleh₂k-, *(s)kep-
  3. to stick into, pierce, perforate
    Synonyms: *bʰedʰ-, *dʰeygʷ-, *ḱelh₂-, *(s)teyg-

Derived terms[edit]

  • *tuk-id-yé-ti[1]
    • Proto-Hellenic: *tukíďďō
      • Ancient Greek: τυκίζω (tukízō, to clench; to work stone, polish (stone))
  • *túk-os[1]
    • Proto-Hellenic: *túkos
      • Ancient Greek: τύκος (túkos, pick, poleaxe, hammer)
  • *tuk-slo-[1][2]
    • Proto-Celtic: *tullos (pierced, perforated) (see there for further descendants)

Unsorted formations:

  • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
    • Latvian: taucêt (to pound, beat)
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
    • Latvian: tūkât (to press, knead)
    • Proto-Slavic: *tъkàti (to prick, pierce) (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic:

See also[edit]

  • *tewk- (to seed), perhaps related if originally *“to press into the ground”


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Pokorny, Julius (1959) “(s)teu-k-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 3, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 1032
  2. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009) “*tullo-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 393