Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/dóru

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Some argue that it is a deadjectival noun of *deru-, *drew- (hard, firm, strong, solid) with reflexes as Latin dūrus (hard, rough), Old English trum (strong, firm), Old Armenian տրամ (tram, firm, solid), and Ancient Greek δροόν (droón, strong, mighty).

Noun[edit]

*dóru n[1]

  1. tree

Inflection[edit]

Athematic, proterokinetic
singular
nominative *dóru
genitive *dréws
singular dual plural
nominative *dóru *dórwih₁ *dóruh₂
vocative *dóru *dórwih₁ *dóruh₂
accusative *dóru *dórwih₁ *dóruh₂
genitive *dréws *? *dréwoHom
ablative *dréws *? *drúmos
dative *dréwey *? *drúmos
locative *dréw, *dréwi *? *drúsu
instrumental *drúh₁ *? *drúbʰi

Descendants[edit]

  • Anatolian: *dōru-[2]
  • Armenian:
    • >? Old Armenian: տարր (tarr, element, matter, substance)[3][4]
  • Hellenic: *dóru (see there for further descendants)
  • Indo-Iranian: *dā́ru (see there for further descendants)
  • Tocharian: *or[5]
    • Tocharian A: or (wood)
    • Tocharian B: or (wood, sg.), ārwa (firewood, pl.)
  • Celtic: *daru (a from oblique *darw-) (see there for further descendants)

Derived terms[edit]

  • *dérw-i-s
    • Anatolian: [Term?]
      • Luwian: [script needed] (tarwi(iya)-, wooden beam)
    • Armenian: [Term?]
      • Old Armenian: տորգ (torg, *wooden framework; weaving, fabric, net)
        • Armenian: տորգ (torg, wooden framework)
    • Indo-Iranian: *dárwiš
  • *derw-ó-m[6][7][8]
    • Balto-Slavic: *dérwan (see there for further descendants)
    • Celtic: *derwom (firm; oak)[8]
      • Brythonic: [Term?]
      • Old Irish: derb (< *derwā) (see there for further descendants)
      • Gaulish: Dervo (toponym)
    • Germanic: *terwą (tar) (see there for further descendants)
  • *dréw-o-m[9]
    • Germanic: *trewą (tree) (see there for further descendants)
      • ? Germanic: *trewwō (see there for further descendants)
  • *dréw-no-m
  • *druh₂ (collective)
    • Hellenic: [Term?]
      • Ancient Greek: δρῦς (drûs, tree, oak) (see there for further descendants)
  • *druh₂-ó-m[10][11]
    • Albanian: *druwa
      • Albanian: dru (wood, tree)
    • Balto-Slavic: [Term?]
      • Slavic: *drъvo (tree, wood, plural)[10] (see there for further descendants)
  • *dru-kós[12]
    • >? Germanic: *trugaz (trough) (see there for further descendants)
  • *dru-mos[13]
  • *dru-k-tó-m[8]
  • *dr̥w-eh₂ló-s
    • Anatolian: [Term?]
      • Luwian: [script needed] (taruu̯al-, mortar)
      • Hittite: [script needed] (taru̯āli-, pestle(?))
      • Old Armenian: տարգալ (targal)
  • *sm̥-dVru-[14]
    • Armenian:
      • >? Old Armenian: անտառ (antaṙ, forest)
Unsorted formations
  • Armenian:
    • >? Old Armenian: տոռն (toṙn, pestle)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1), Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  2. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008), “tāru-”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 849
  3. ^ Martirosyan, Hrach (2010), “tarr”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 608–609
  4. ^ Viredaz, Rémy (2017) La dissimilation d'aperture vocalique en arménien (loi d'Olsen)[1] (in French), Handout of a paper presented at the 11th International Congress on Armenian Linguistics, Yerevan, 2‒5 October, 2017, page 29, citing de Lamberterie
  5. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (2013) A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN
  6. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008), “*drъvo”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 122-123: “*deru-o-”
  7. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*terwa/ōn-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 514: “*der-uo/eh₂-”
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Delamarre, Xavier (2003), “*derwo-”, in Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise: une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental [Dictionary of the Gaulish language: A linguistic approach to Old Continental Celtic] (Collection des Hespérides; 9), 3rd edition, Éditions Errance, →ISBN, page 96: “*derw-o-”
  9. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*trewa-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 522: “*dréu-o-”
  10. 10.0 10.1 Derksen, Rick (2008), “*drъvo”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 122-123: “*dru(H)-o-”
  11. ^ Delamarre, Xavier (2003), “*daru-”, in Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise: une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental [Dictionary of the Gaulish language: A linguistic approach to Old Continental Celtic] (Collection des Hespérides; 9), 3rd edition, Éditions Errance, →ISBN, page 91: “*drw-os”
  12. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*truka-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 523: “*dru-kós”
  13. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*truma- 1”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 524: “*dru-mo-”
  14. ^ Martirosyan, Hrach (2010), “antaṙ”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 95-96