Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/h₂ébōl

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Connection with certain Indo-Iranian terms has been suggested:

There are several indications that the word for “apple” did not belong to the oldest layer of the Indo-European protolanguage:

  1. The word is limited to the West Indo-European languages
  2. It contains the phoneme */b/, which had marginal distribution in PIE
  3. It somewhat resembles the South European word for "apple" (PIE or pseudo-PIE *méh₂lom: Latin mālum, Ancient Greek μῆλον (mêlon)), which might suggest a substrate or wanderwort origin of both.

This all points that the word entered the Indo-European speech continuum some time after the dissolution of the parent language.

Reconstruction[edit]

Germanic stem variants *apal- and *apla- point to the originally archaic ablauting paradigm.

Alternative reconstructions[edit]

Noun[edit]

*h₂ébōl m

  1. apple

Inflection[edit]

Athematic, amphikinetic
singular
nominative *h₂ébōl
genitive *h₂blés
singular dual plural
nominative *h₂ébōl *h₂ébolh₁(e) *h₂éboles
vocative *h₂ébol *h₂ébolh₁(e) *h₂éboles
accusative *h₂ébolm̥ *h₂ébolh₁(e) *h₂ébolm̥s
genitive *h₂blés *? *h₂blóHom
ablative *h₂blés *? *h₂bl̥mós
dative *h₂bléy *? *h₂bl̥mós
locative *h₂bél, *h₂béli *? *h₂bl̥sú
instrumental *h₂bléh₁ *? *h₂bl̥bʰí

Synonyms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Balto-Slavic: *āˀbōl (see there for further descendants)
  • Celtic: *abalom (see there for further descendants)
  • Germanic: *aplaz (see there for further descendants)
  • Italic: [Term?]
    • Oscan: Abella (the name of a city in Campania which Vergil calls malifera, i.e. "apple-bearing", usually dismissed as a borrowing from a northern language though)

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*abalo-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 23

References[edit]

  • Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q., editors (1997) Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, page 25f
  • Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 712f
  • Kroonen, Guus (2013), “apla-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 31f