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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative reconstructions[edit]


The original form was a neuter root noun, as can be seen from Latin os and Avestan 𐬀𐬯𐬙-(ast-). In the rest of the daughters, the noun has been transferred to various vocalic stems.

Medial -th- in Sanskrit अस्थि (ásthi) requires root of the form *HestH (the initial laryngeal is there to account for the canonical shape of Proto-Indo-European root). Latin reflex requires initial laryngeal to be *h₃, and Ancient Greek ὀστέον (ostéon) points to *h₁ as the root-final laryngeal.

Celtic forms require initial laryngeal to be #h₂-, so this noun is sometimes[3] reconstructed to have paradigm *h₂óst(h₁) ~ *h₂ést(h₁)s.


*h₃ésth₁ n

  1. bone


Acrostatic ablauting paradigm.

This noun needs an inflection-table template.

Related terms[edit]


Further reading[edit]


  1. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  3. ^ Steinbauer and Schrijver
  4. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (2013), “āyo”, in A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, page 48