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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Perhaps from *h₃ewp-.



  1. under, below

Related terms[edit]

  • *(s)up-s
    • Italic: [Term?]
  • *(s)up-s-i
    • Hellenic: [Term?]
  • *(s)up-s-os ~ *(s)up-s-es-
    • Hellenic: [Term?]
  • *(s)up-tos
  • *(s)up-ti-os
  • *(s)up-iH-nos
  • *(s)up-ér(i)
  • *(s)úp-m̥mo-s (uppermost)



  • Fortson, Benjamin W. (2004) Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, first edition, Oxford: Blackwell
  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  • Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume III, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 1105
  • Martirosyan, Hrach (2010), “ger”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 207
  1. ^ Buck, Carl (1904) A grammar of Oscan and Umbrian, Ginn & Co, page 210