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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *sriat (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *g/b-sat (Matisoff, STEDT); *g-sat (LaPolla, 1987; Benedict, 1972); *g-sɑ̂t (Chou, 1972)

Compare Proto-Monic *k-r-cət ("to kill") (Mon ဃာစိုတ် (həcɒt, to kill)), Proto-Mon-Khmer *gət ~ gut (to kill) (Khmer គុត (kut, to kill, to slay)) ~ Vietnamese giết (to kill).

< Proto-Mon-Khmer *kc(ə)t (to die) (Proto-Monic *kcət, Vietnamese chết).



  1. to kill
  2. to hit, to strike


  • Old Chinese: (*s‹r›at (B-S); *sreːd (ZS), to kill); (*s‹r›at-s (B-S); *sreːds (ZS), to diminish)
    • Middle Chinese: (ʃɣɛt, ʃɣɛiH), informally also: /ʃɣɛt/ ("to kill, to stop; very, extremely; evil spirit")

         Japanese:   (さつ, ​satsu)
            Korean:   (, sal)
            Vietnamese:  sát

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (shā, /ʂa⁵⁵/), (shài, /ʂaɪ̯⁵¹/), (shà, /ʂa⁵¹/)
      • Cantonese
        • Guangzhou: /sɑːt̚³, sɑːi³³/
      • Wu
        • Shanghai: (sᴀʔ⁵⁵)
    • Min
      • Min Nan
        • Taiwan: /sat̚³/
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan
          • Written Tibetan: གསོད་པ (gsod pa, to kill, to slaughter, to murder; to extinguish, to eliminate, to eradicate, to annihilate) (pf. བསད (bsad))
  • Tangut-Qiang
    • rGyalrongic
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
        • Burmese: သတ် (sat, to kill; to quench (fire); to fight, to struggle)
      • Loloish
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): (sit, to kill; to stab; to fight a war)

See also[edit]