Reconstruction:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/l-(t/d)jam

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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Sino-Tibetan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: ?
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *l-(t)jam ⪤ *l-(d)jam (Matisoff, STEDT; LaPolla, 1987; Benedict, 1972)

This root combines two separate meanings. In some languages it means (to) fill, while in others straight or flat.

Adjective[edit]

*l-(t/d)jam

  1. full
  2. straight, flat

Verb[edit]

*l-(t/d)jam

  1. fill

Descendants[edit]

  • Old Chinese:
    /*t.qəm/ (B-S); /*kljum/ (ZS) ("to pour")
    /*ɴ.rəm/ (B-S); /*lɯm/ (ZS) ("excessive")
    • Middle Chinese:
      /t͡ɕiɪm/

         Japanese:   (しん, ​shin)
            Korean:   (, jim)
            Vietnamese:  châm

      /jiɪm/

         Japanese:   (いん, ​in)
            Korean:   (, eum)
            Vietnamese:  dâm

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing:
          (zhēn, /ʈ͡ʂən⁵⁵/)
          (yín, /in³⁵/)
      • Cantonese:
        /t͡sɐm⁵⁵/
        /jɐm²¹/
  • Kuki-Chin: /*ɗim/ ("full")
    • Northern Chin
      • Tiddim:
        /dim/ ("full") (LaPolla, 1987)
        /tam/ ("level") (LaPolla, 1987)
    • Central Chin
      • Lai: /duʔ dîm/ ("fully satisfied")
  • Himalayish
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
        • Written Burmese: တန်း (tan:, straight) /táɴ/