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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: ?
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *s/m/g/-rus (Matisoff, STEDT); *rus (Weidert, 1987 TBTo; Michailovsky, 1991 Kr; LaPolla, 1987; Benedict, 1972 STC)

A Chinese reflex appears to be lacking. Chinese ( < OC *kˁut, "bone") is sometimes compared with this root. Although Lepcha a-hrǎt ("bone") and Karen k(h)rut ("bone") show a final -t, the correspondence is still problematic as there is no medial *-r- in the Chinese word. Interestingly, there is a Chinese cognate to Written Tibetan rus ("clan"): (lèi < OC *rut-s, "category, clan"); note that the sense "clan" is likely a secondary derivation from "bone" > "lineage, family". Compare also Chinese (hái < OC *ɡˁrə, "bones, skeleton") and (kuí < OC *ɡʷru, "cheekbone").



  1. bone


  • Kuki-Chin: /*ruʔ/ (VanBik, 2009)
    • Central Chin
      • Mizo: ruh (bone)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
        • Written Burmese: ရိုး (rui:, bone; lineage, family), အရိုး (a.rui:, bone; stalk; hilt, haft; lineage, tradition)