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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



From Proto-Indo-European *déh₃rom (gift), from the root *deh₃- (to give), turning masculine by Illič-Svityč's rule.

Direct cognate is Ancient Greek δῶρον (dôron, gift) and Old Armenian տուր (tur). Indirect cognates (with the suffix -no) are Latin dōnum (gift) and Sanskrit दान (dāná, gift).


Vasmer and Derksen assume an original v-stem, but ESSJa claims that the forms with -ov- are secondary. Sławski claims that the evidence in inconclusive, and the history of the word as well as the derivatives indicate a coexistence of a v-stem.


*dȃrъ m

  1. gift (given to another)
    *darъmь/*daromьfor free
    *dati darъmь/*daromьto give for free
    *vъ darъ datito give as a gift
    *božьjь darъsomething sent by God
  2. (figuratively) talent, gift (ability)
  3. (in the plural) ceremonial gifts offered to the bride and groom during a wedding or exchanged during the wedding between the closest relatives and newlyweds


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  • Vasmer, Max (1964–1973), “дар”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkovo jazyka [Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), translated from German and supplemented by Trubačóv O. N., Moscow: Progress
  • Derksen, Rick (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 96
  • Trubačev O. N., editor (1977), “*darъ”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ slavjanskix jazykov [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages] (in Russian), volume 04, Moscow: Nauka, page 191
  • Sławski, Franciszek, editor (1976) Słownik prasłowiański (in Polish), volume II, Wrocław: Polska Akademia Nauk, page 346f