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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



There are four theories about its origin:

Second and third theory require transmission by a Turkic or an Iranian language, but it is not attested in them. Although sometimes cited, Chuvash кӗнеке (kĕneke) and Ossetian чиныг (ḱinyg), киунугӕ (kiwnugæ) are both considered early Slavic loans.

However, Hungarian könyv (book) and Erzya конёв (konjov, paper), which are unlikely to derive from Slavic, testify to early presence of this word in the Volga region.


*kъňìga f[1][2]

  1. book



Further reading[edit]

  • Abajev, V. I. (1958) Istoriko-etimologičeskij slovarʹ osetinskovo jazyka [Historical-Etymological Dictionary of the Ossetian Language] (in Russian), volume 1, Moscow, Leningrad: USSR Academy of Sciences, page 596
  • Ačaṙean, Hračʿeay (1971–1979), “կնիք”, in Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Dictionary of Armenian Root Words] (in Armenian), volume 2, 2nd edition, reprint of the original 1926–1935 seven-volume edition, Yerevan: University Press, page 609
  • Berneker, Erich (1908–1913) Slavisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German), volume I, Heidelberg: Winter, page 664
  • Černyx, P. Ja. (1999), “книга”, in Istoriko-etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkovo jazyka [Historical-Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), volume 1, 3rd reprint edition, Moscow: Russkij jazyk, page 406
  • Matzenauer, Antonín (1870) Cizí slova ve slovanských řečech [Foreign words in Slavic languages] (in Czech), Brno: Matica Moravská, page 43
  • Cyganenko, G. B. (1989), “книга”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkovo jazyka [Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), 2nd edition, Kiev: Radjansʹka škola, page 179–180
  • Vasmer (Fasmer), Max (Maks) (1964–1973), “книга”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkovo jazyka [Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), translated from German and supplemented by Trubačóv Oleg, Moscow: Progress
  • Trubačóv, Oleg, editor (1987), “*kъniga”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ slavjanskix jazykov [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages] (in Russian), volume 13, Moscow: Nauka, page 203


  1. ^ Olander, Thomas (2001), “kъnjiga”, in Common Slavic accentological word list, Copenhagen: Editiones Olander: “a (SA 172, 187; PR 132)”
  2. ^ Snoj, Marko (2016), “knjíga”, in Slovenski etimološki slovar, Ljubljana: Inštitut za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, →ISBN: “*kъni̋ga”