User:Victar/Reflexes/Proto-Shughni

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Reflexes[edit]

PIr pre-PSYM PSYM MY PShY PShS Sar. PShR B O R X Sh Bj Examples
M Y PIr pre-SYM PSYM Munj.-Yidgh. PShY Yazgh PShS Sarik. PShR Shugh.-Rosh.
*a [1] *u[V 1] *u u u *u ō ū ō ū *baxtáh (evil spirit) *bəǧdɨ́ > *buǧdɨ́ *búyd [Term?] [Term?] voyd [Term?]̄ BX vōyd, RShBj vūyd
o aw āw ōw ū ū̊[V 2] *HámarnaH (apple) *ámərṇa > *ámuṣ̌ṇa *ǽmūṇæ Y åmúṇo *mǣ́wn mawn *mǣ́wn ǖ́ mon *mø̄́wn XBO mōwn, R māwn, Sh mūn, Bj mū̊n
[V 3] ū ū u ō ū ō ū *parnám (feather) *pərṇú > *puṣ̌ṇú *pūṇú Y pūṇä *pū́n půn *pū́n pun *pū́n Sh pūn
*a [V 4] ‹a› ‹e› ȫ ǖ o ī *kátah (house) *kádɨ *ḱǽd MY ḱay *ḱǽd kůd *čǿd čed *čǿd B čō̈d, O čǖd, RX čod, Sh čīd
ǖ o ī ǖ *hwásruš (mother-in-law) *xáuṣ̌u > *xū́ṣ̌u *xū́ṣ̌u M xuṣ̌á, xuṣ̌ə́ (Y xᵘšō) *xʷǽx̌ xůx̌ *xǽx̌ xex̌ *xøx̌ BOBj xǖx̌, XR xox̌, R xax̌, Sh xīx̌
*i[V 5] i *zámičiH (field) *záiməčī > *zīmč́i *zímč́ MY zaxmo *zímč́ zamč *zímc zemc, zimc *zímc zimc
[V 6] [ɔ] i ī *pánča (five) *pǽnǰ *pǽnǰ M pōnǰ, Y pānš, *pénǰ penǰ *pīnǰ pinǰ *pīnǰ pīnǰ
[V 3] o ā *damaH (back (body)) *dāma *dām *dām dām *dām dom *dām BORXSh dām
[V 3] ọ̄ ‹ō› a e ē ī ā ē *čášmā (eye) *čā́ma *č́ǣ́mæ M čōm, Y čam *č́ǣ́m čām, čam *č́ǣ́m cem *č́ǣ́m BShBj cēm, O cīm, RX cām
*ai[V 7] i ī *ȷ́áritah (pale) *záirdɨ > *zī́rdɨ *zī́rd M zit, Y zīt *zī́rd zard *zī́rd zird *zī́rd zīrd
*au[V 7] ы ū ū *párukah (mouse) *páurəgɨ > *pū́rgɨ *pū́rg M porǧ, Y pårǧ *pū́rg purg *pū́rg pыrg, půrg *pū́rg RXSh pūrg
[V 3] ‹ā› u *ø̄ ō ō *bráHtah (brother) *vrā́dɨ *vᵊrǣ́d M vrāī, Y vᵊrai *vᵊrǣ́d vᵊred *vⁱrø̄́d virud *vⁱrø̄́d BOSh virōd
ɛ a i *framaHyáti (to order) *frəmāyádɨ *frᵊmāyd *frᵊmāyd x̌amayd *rⁱmāyd rimɛyd *rⁱmāyd B rimiyd, BORX rimayd, ShBj rimid, rimiyd
ọ̄ ‹ō› u *ø̄ ō ū̊[V 8] *Hnā́ma (name) *nā́m *nǣ́m M nōm Y nā́m *nǣ́m nəm *nø̄́m num *nø̄́m BR nōm, Sh nū̊m
*ȷ́ā́nu (knee) *zǣ́n *zǣ́n zən *zǣ́n zun *zǣ́n BOR zōn, Sh zū̊n
ō ǣ ɛ̄ *pā́ršnah (heel) *pā́rni > *pā́rn + *-ak *pǣ́rnak *pǣ́rnak *pǣ́rnak *pø̄́rnak BO pōrnak, R pērnak, Sh pɛ̄rnak
ɛ a ā ō ō *gā́waH (cow) *ǧ́ǣ́wæ M ǧṓwa, Y ǧavo *ǧ́ǣ́w ǧεw *žǣ́w žεw, žaw *žǣ́w BO žāw, RXSh žōw
*frāwayáti [Term?] [Term?] fərawd [Term?] [Term?] R firēwd, Bj firāwd, Sh firɛ̄wd
*aw *ụ̄ [ʊː] ū *ụ̄ ɛw *ụ̄ ū ū ū̊ *ráwgnah (butter) *rū́ǧnɨ *rū́ǧn M rūɣn, Y rūɣən *rū́ǧn roɣn *rū́ǧn rɛwn *rū́ǧn rūnxax̌č, růnxax̌č
*ćáwkaH (tale) *sụ̄́gæ M sūgo, Y suǧiko *sụ̄́g *sụ̄́g sɛwg, sawg *sụ̄́g BORX sūg, Sh sū̊g
*táwxmā (seed) *tṓǧma *tụ̄́ǧmæ M tuǧm [tuɣm] *tụ̄́ǧm tǧɪmaj *tụ̄́ǧm teǧm *tụ̄́ǧm BR tūǧm, Sh tū̊ǧm
ū[V 9] *ćráwniš (buttocks) *ṣ̌ṓni *ṣ̌ụ̄́nə M šina, Y šino *ṣ̌ụ̄́n *x̌ụ̄́n x̌ɛwn, x̌awn *x̌ụ̄́n BXRSh x̌ūn, O x̌un
ō[V 10] ū̊ *gáwšah (ear) *ǧṓṣ̌i *ǧụ̄́ṣ̌ M ǧūy [ɣuːj ~ ɣʊj], ǧū *ǧụ̄́ǧ ǧəvon *ǧụ̄́ǧ ǧɛwl *ǧụ̄́ǧ R ǧōw, B ǧū, O ǧūy, Sh ǧū̊ǧ
*ay ɛy ī ē *xʷáydah (sweat) *xʷḗδɨ *xʷḗδ M xalá, Y xūl, xul *x̌ʷḗδ x̌ʷiδ *x̌ḗδ x̌ɛyδ *x̌ḗδ BR xīδ, Sh x̌ēδ
ī[V 9] *xšaynah (blue) *xʷḗnɨ *xʷḗn *x̌ʷḗn šin *x̌ḗn x̌ɛyn *x̌ḗn RSh x̌īn
[V 10] ɛ ā ǣ a *máyšaH (sheep) *mā́ṣ̌a *mǣ́ǧæ Y mūo *mǣ́ǧ maw *mǣ́ǧ mɛwl *mǣ́ǧ BO māw, XR mēw, Sh maǧ, Bj maw
[V 11] ī ī *áywah (one) *ī́wɨ *ī́w *ī́w *ī́w īw, ī *ī́w BShR yīw, īw
*i [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*i[V 4] *i i *i i *píštah (crushed) *píštɨ *píšt *píx̌t pax̌t *píx̌t pax̌t *píx̌t BRSh pix̌t
*ī, *iH *i [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*u ʊ(ː)~ɔw [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
[V 12] ɛ a ā ō ō *ćruwáh (horn) *ṣ̌əwɨ́ *ṣ̌ə́w M ṣ̌əw, Y šu *x̌ǣ́w x̌ow *x̌ǣ́w x̌ɛw, x̌aw *x̌ǣ́w XR x̌aw, x̌āw
*u[V 4] *u *u *u[V 4] ы *ụ u *kútah (dog) *kúdɨ *kúd *kúd kʷod *kúd kыd *kúd kud
[V 5] e ī *súptiš (shoulder) *súvdi *sī́vd Y suvdo *sī́vd *sī́vd sevd *sī́vd BXSh sīvd, R sivd
*ū, *uH iː~ʊj ū̊ ū *duHtáh (smoke) *δūdɨ́ *δūd M lïy, Y lūi *δūd δod *δūd δū̊d *δūd XRSh δūd
*u a *a a *būzaH (goat) *vūsa *vūzæ vusa *vaz vaz *vaz vaz *vaz BRSh vaz
*r̥ *ar *ər *ər *ər *ər *Hŕ̥šah (bear) ŕ̥ši > ə́rši *ə́rš Y yarš, yerš [Term?] yůrx̌ [Term?] yыrx [Term?] BXSh yūrx̌, R yurx̌
e *ūr[V 13] ū u ū *kr̥dúš (crooked) *ḱæurδú > *čūrδú *čū́rδ [Term?] *čǿrδ čerδ *čū́rδ B čūrδ, R čurδ, Sh čūrδ
e *ūr[V 14] ū u ū *kr̥náwti (to do) *ḱæurṇụ̄́di > *ḱūṣ̌ṇụ̄́di *čūṇụ̄́d M kənd, Y kend [Term?] kʷənd *čǿd kand *čū́d BRX kinūd, ShBj kinū̊d
Notes
  1. ^ *ə > *u / C[+labial]_
  2. ^ C_C
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 *V > V̄ /_∅ < {C,H}]σ
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 _[+stress]
  5. 5.0 5.1 _C{*i,*y}
  6. ^ *æ > *ī / _{*δ,*n,*r}
  7. 7.0 7.1 a > /C₀
  8. ^ _N
  9. 9.0 9.1 _n
  10. 10.0 10.1
  11. ^ #_
  12. ^ *ə > *ǣ / _Y[2]
  13. ^ _C
  14. ^ _C

Orthography[edit]

IPA Wiktionary Sokolova (1967) Morgenstierne (1974) Edelman (1980) Steblin (1999) Rastorgueva (2000) Novak (2013)
æ ɛ̣ æ a æ æ æ
ɛː ɛ̄ ɛ̄ ǟ ê ā? ɛ̄
øː ø̄ ȫ ö ö ö ȫ
ʉ̞ ʉ ы ï î ы ы ы
ʊː ụ̄ ū̊ ů ū̊ ů ů ů̄
ȳ ǖ û ö ǖ

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sokolova, V. S. (1967) Genetičeskije otnošenija jazguljamskovo jazyka i šugnanskoj jazykovoj gruppy [The Genetic Relationships of the Yazgulam Language and the Shugnan Language Group], Leningrad, § 118, page 82
  2. ^ Sokolova, V. S. (1967) Genetičeskije otnošenija jazguljamskovo jazyka i šugnanskoj jazykovoj gruppy [The Genetic Relationships of the Yazgulam Language and the Shugnan Language Group], Leningrad, page 100