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See also: zend


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Alternative forms[edit]


Via Zoroastrian Middle Persian znd (zand, understanding, interpretation), from Avestan 𐬰𐬀𐬌𐬥𐬙𐬌(zainti, understanding), from Avestan verbal root 𐬰𐬀𐬥-(zan-, to know, to understand), from Proto-Indo-European *ǵneh₃-.

Proper noun[edit]


  1. Exegetical glosses, paraphrases, commentaries and translations of the Avesta's texts.
    • 1984, Mary Boyce, Textual Sources for the Study of Zoroastrianism, Manchester UP, page 3:
      Zand or 'Interpretation' is a term for the exegesis of Avestan texts through glosses, commentaries and translations.
  2. (dated) The Avestan language.
    • 1878, Martin Haug, Essays on the Sacred Language, Writings, and Religion of the Parsis. Trübner, page 115:
      As to grammatical forms, the Gâtha dialect shows not a few deviations from the current Zend language.
    • 1819, William Erskine, "On the Sacred Books and Religion of the Parsis", Trans. of the Lit. Soc. of Bombay II, 1820, page 312:
      [The Avesta] is the only work known to be written in the Zend language.
    • 1867, William Dwight Whitney, Language and the Study of Language, Trübner, page 222:
      The dialect in which these writings are composed goes usually by the name of the Zend ; it is also styled the Avestan, and sometimes the Old Bactrian, from the country Bactria, the north-easternmost region of the great Iranian territory, which is supposed to have been its specific locality.


See also[edit]