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Alternative forms[edit]


From caleō +‎ -idus.



calidus (feminine calida, neuter calidum, comparative calidior, superlative calidissimus); first/second-declension adjective

  1. (literary) warm, hot
    Synonyms: (informal) caldus, (archaic) formus
    Antonym: frigidus
  2. fiery, fierce, vehement
  3. spirited, impassioned
  4. rash, eager, inconsiderate
  5. (rare) having a white spot on the forehead

Usage notes[edit]

  • In the sense "hot water", the syncopated form calda is particularly common. Emperor Augustus "corrects [his grandson Gaius Caesar] for saying calidam rather than caldam, not because it's not Latin, but because it's annoying and, as he himself puts it in Greek, περίεργον (períergon, affected, overdone)".[1]
  • The form with -i- is completely absent from the surviving fragments of Petronius' Satyricon as inappropriate for representing informal speech, at least in the literal meaning.[2]


First/second-declension adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative calidus calida calidum calidī calidae calida
Genitive calidī calidae calidī calidōrum calidārum calidōrum
Dative calidō calidō calidīs
Accusative calidum calidam calidum calidōs calidās calida
Ablative calidō calidā calidō calidīs
Vocative calide calida calidum calidī calidae calida


Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]


(Nearly all Romance descendants via the early syncopic form caldus.)


  1. ^ Adams, J. N. (2013) Social Variation and the Latin Language, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 94
  2. ^ B. Boyce (2018 July 17) The Language of the Freedmen in Petronius' Cena Trimalchionis[1], BRILL, →ISBN, page 42

Further reading[edit]

  • calidus”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • calidus”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • calidus in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • calidus in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.