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From caleō (I am warm or hot; glow) +‎ -idus.

Alternative forms[edit]



calidus (feminine calida, neuter calidum, comparative calidior, superlative calidissimus); first/second-declension adjective

  1. (literary) warm, hot
    Synonym: (informal) caldus
  2. fiery, fierce, vehement
  3. spirited, impassioned
  4. rash, eager, inconsiderate
  5. (rare) having a white spot on the forehead

Usage notes[edit]

  • In the sense "hot water", the syncopated form calda is particularly common. Emperor Augustus "corrects [his grandson Gaius Caesar] for saying calidam rather than caldam, not because it's not Latin, but because it's annoying and, as he himself puts it in Greek, περίεργον (períergon, affected, overdone)".[1]
  • The form with -i- is completely absent from the surviving fragments of Petronius' Satyricon as inappropriate for representing informal speech, at least in the literal meaning.[2]


First/second-declension adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative calidus calida calidum calidī calidae calida
Genitive calidī calidae calidī calidōrum calidārum calidōrum
Dative calidō calidō calidīs
Accusative calidum calidam calidum calidōs calidās calida
Ablative calidō calidā calidō calidīs
Vocative calide calida calidum calidī calidae calida


Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ J. N. Adams (23 May 2013) Social Variation and the Latin Language[1], Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, pages 94–
  2. ^ B. Boyce (2018-07-17) The Language of the Freedmen in Petronius' Cena Trimalchionis[2], BRILL, →ISBN, page 42

Further reading[edit]