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- (now rare) A state of adverse or unhealthy atmospheric conditions.
- (now rare) Unhealthy imbalance of bodily humours; a disorder.
- 1621, Democritus Junior [pseudonym; Robert Burton], The Anatomy of Melancholy, Oxford: Printed by Iohn Lichfield and Iames Short, for Henry Cripps, OCLC 216894069; The Anatomy of Melancholy: […], 2nd corrected and augmented edition, Oxford: Printed by John Lichfield and James Short, for Henry Cripps, 1624, OCLC 54573970:, New York, 2001, p.224:
- Standing waters, thick and ill-coloured, […] cause foul distemperatures in the body and mind of man […]