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See also: ètic and -etic


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Coined by American linguist Kenneth Pike in 1954 from phonetic.

  • 1962, Kenneth Lee Pike, With Heart and Mind: A Personal Synthesis of Scholarship and Devotion, page 37
    I have coined the term etic to refer to the detached observer’s view []


etic (comparative more etic, superlative most etic)

  1. (social sciences) Of or pertaining to analysis of a culture from a perspective situated outside all cultures.
    • 1996, Advanced Methodological Issues in Culturally Competent Evaluation for Substance Abuse Prevention
      A useful example of the emic-etic distinction may be made by comparing the concept “waves on the ocean or sea” from the perspective of a European American with that of a Truk Islander [] The proposed etics here might be that both cultures understand the use of waves as vehicles for surfing and as movement reflecting the transfer of energy [] certain differences, or emics exist, for European Americans the waves may be sources of beauty — the Truk Islander has learned to use them [] as a road map.

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Classical Nahuatl[edit]


From Proto-Uto-Aztecan. Cognate with Hopi putu (heavy) and O'odham we:c.




  1. heavy


  • Andrews, J. Richard. (2003) Workbook for Introduction to Classical Nahuatl, Revised Edition, University of Oklahoma Press, page 208.
  • Karttunen, Frances. (1983) An Analytical Dictionary of Nahuatl, University of Texas Press, page 10.
  • Lockhart, James. (2001) Nahuatl as Written, Stanford University Press, page 210.