gawula

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Xhosa[edit]

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Verb[edit]

-gáwúla

  1. to fell, to chop down

Inflection[edit]

This verb needs an inflection-table template.


Zulu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Verb[edit]

-gawula?

  1. (transitive) to fell, to chop down

Inflection[edit]

Tone unknown
Infinitive ukugawula
Positive Negative
Infinitive ukugawula ukungagawuli
Imperative
Simple + object concord
Singular gawula -gawule
Plural gawulani -gawuleni
Present
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyagawula, ngigawula engigawulayo, engigawula ngigawula angigawuli engingagawuli ngingagawuli
2nd singular uyagawula, ugawula ogawulayo, ogawula ugawula awugawuli ongagawuli ungagawuli
1st plural siyagawula, sigawula esigawulayo, esigawula sigawula asigawuli esingagawuli singagawuli
2nd plural niyagawula, nigawula enigawulayo, enigawula nigawula anigawuli eningagawuli ningagawuli
Class 1 uyagawula, ugawula ogawulayo, ogawula egawula akagawuli ongagawuli engagawuli
Class 2 bayagawula, bagawula abagawulayo, abagawula begawula abagawuli abangagawuli bengagawuli
Class 3 uyagawula, ugawula ogawulayo, ogawula ugawula awugawuli ongagawuli ungagawuli
Class 4 iyagawula, igawula egawulayo, egawula igawula ayigawuli engagawuli ingagawuli
Class 5 liyagawula, ligawula eligawulayo, eligawula ligawula aligawuli elingagawuli lingagawuli
Class 6 ayagawula, agawula agawulayo, agawula egawula awagawuli angagawuli engagawuli
Class 7 siyagawula, sigawula esigawulayo, esigawula sigawula asigawuli esingagawuli singagawuli
Class 8 ziyagawula, zigawula ezigawulayo, ezigawula zigawula azigawuli ezingagawuli zingagawuli
Class 9 iyagawula, igawula egawulayo, egawula igawula ayigawuli engagawuli ingagawuli
Class 10 ziyagawula, zigawula ezigawulayo, ezigawula zigawula azigawuli ezingagawuli zingagawuli
Class 11 luyagawula, lugawula olugawulayo, olugawula lugawula alugawuli olungagawuli lungagawuli
Class 14 buyagawula, bugawula obugawulayo, obugawula bugawula abugawuli obungagawuli bungagawuli
Class 15 kuyagawula, kugawula okugawulayo, okugawula kugawula akugawuli okungagawuli kungagawuli
Class 17 kuyagawula, kugawula okugawulayo, okugawula kugawula akugawuli okungagawuli kungagawuli
Recent past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngigawulile, ngigawulē engigawulile, engigawulē ngigawulile, ngigawulē angigawulanga engingagawulanga ngingagawulanga
2nd singular ugawulile, ugawulē ogawulile, ogawulē ugawulile, ugawulē awugawulanga ongagawulanga ungagawulanga
1st plural sigawulile, sigawulē esigawulile, esigawulē sigawulile, sigawulē asigawulanga esingagawulanga singagawulanga
2nd plural nigawulile, nigawulē enigawulile, enigawulē nigawulile, nigawulē anigawulanga eningagawulanga ningagawulanga
Class 1 ugawulile, ugawulē ogawulile, ogawulē egawulile, egawulē akagawulanga ongagawulanga engagawulanga
Class 2 bagawulile, bagawulē abagawulile, abagawulē begawulile, begawulē abagawulanga abangagawulanga bengagawulanga
Class 3 ugawulile, ugawulē ogawulile, ogawulē ugawulile, ugawulē awugawulanga ongagawulanga ungagawulanga
Class 4 igawulile, igawulē egawulile, egawulē igawulile, igawulē ayigawulanga engagawulanga ingagawulanga
Class 5 ligawulile, ligawulē eligawulile, eligawulē ligawulile, ligawulē aligawulanga elingagawulanga lingagawulanga
Class 6 agawulile, agawulē agawulile, agawulē egawulile, egawulē awagawulanga angagawulanga engagawulanga
Class 7 sigawulile, sigawulē esigawulile, esigawulē sigawulile, sigawulē asigawulanga esingagawulanga singagawulanga
Class 8 zigawulile, zigawulē ezigawulile, ezigawulē zigawulile, zigawulē azigawulanga ezingagawulanga zingagawulanga
Class 9 igawulile, igawulē egawulile, egawulē igawulile, igawulē ayigawulanga engagawulanga ingagawulanga
Class 10 zigawulile, zigawulē ezigawulile, ezigawulē zigawulile, zigawulē azigawulanga ezingagawulanga zingagawulanga
Class 11 lugawulile, lugawulē olugawulile, olugawulē lugawulile, lugawulē alugawulanga olungagawulanga lungagawulanga
Class 14 bugawulile, bugawulē obugawulile, obugawulē bugawulile, bugawulē abugawulanga obungagawulanga bungagawulanga
Class 15 kugawulile, kugawulē okugawulile, okugawulē kugawulile, kugawulē akugawulanga okungagawulanga kungagawulanga
Class 17 kugawulile, kugawulē okugawulile, okugawulē kugawulile, kugawulē akugawulanga okungagawulanga kungagawulanga
Remote past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngāgawula engāgawula ngāgawula angigawulanga engingagawulanga ngingagawulanga
2nd singular wāgawula owāgawula wāgawula awugawulanga ongagawulanga ungagawulanga
1st plural sāgawula esāgawula sāgawula asigawulanga esingagawulanga singagawulanga
2nd plural nāgawula enāgawula nāgawula anigawulanga eningagawulanga ningagawulanga
Class 1 wāgawula owāgawula āgawula akagawulanga ongagawulanga engagawulanga
Class 2 bāgawula abāgawula bāgawula abagawulanga abangagawulanga bengagawulanga
Class 3 wāgawula owāgawula wāgawula awugawulanga ongagawulanga ungagawulanga
Class 4 yāgawula eyāgawula yāgawula ayigawulanga engagawulanga ingagawulanga
Class 5 lāgawula elāgawula lāgawula aligawulanga elingagawulanga lingagawulanga
Class 6 āgawula āgawula āgawula awagawulanga angagawulanga engagawulanga
Class 7 sāgawula esāgawula sāgawula asigawulanga esingagawulanga singagawulanga
Class 8 zāgawula ezāgawula zāgawula azigawulanga ezingagawulanga zingagawulanga
Class 9 yāgawula eyāgawula yāgawula ayigawulanga engagawulanga ingagawulanga
Class 10 zāgawula ezāgawula zāgawula azigawulanga ezingagawulanga zingagawulanga
Class 11 lwāgawula olwāgawula lwāgawula alugawulanga olungagawulanga lungagawulanga
Class 14 bāgawula obāgawula bāgawula abugawulanga obungagawulanga bungagawulanga
Class 15 kwāgawula okwāgawula kwāgawula akugawulanga okungagawulanga kungagawulanga
Class 17 kwāgawula okwāgawula kwāgawula akugawulanga okungagawulanga kungagawulanga
Potential
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngingagawula ngingagawula ngingegawule ngingegawule
2nd singular ungagawula ungagawula ungegawule ungegawule
1st plural singagawula singagawula singegawule singegawule
2nd plural ningagawula ningagawula ningegawule ningegawule
Class 1 angagawula engagawula angegawule engegawule
Class 2 bangagawula bengagawula bangegawule bengegawule
Class 3 ungagawula ungagawula ungegawule ungegawule
Class 4 ingagawula ingagawula ingegawule ingegawule
Class 5 lingagawula lingagawula lingegawule lingegawule
Class 6 angagawula engagawula angegawule engegawule
Class 7 singagawula singagawula singegawule singegawule
Class 8 zingagawula zingagawula zingegawule zingegawule
Class 9 ingagawula ingagawula ingegawule ingegawule
Class 10 zingagawula zingagawula zingegawule zingegawule
Class 11 lungagawula lungagawula lungegawule lungegawule
Class 14 bungagawula bungagawula bungegawule bungegawule
Class 15 kungagawula kungagawula kungegawule kungegawule
Class 17 kungagawula kungagawula kungegawule kungegawule
Immediate future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngizogawula engizogawula ngizogawula angizugawula engingezugawula ngingezugawula
2nd singular uzogawula ozogawula uzogawula awuzugawula ongezugawula ungezugawula
1st plural sizogawula esizogawula sizogawula asizugawula esingezugawula singezugawula
2nd plural nizogawula enizogawula nizogawula anizugawula eningezugawula ningezugawula
Class 1 uzogawula ozogawula ezogawula akazugawula ongezugawula engezugawula
Class 2 bazogawula abazogawula bezogawula abazugawula abangezugawula bengezugawula
Class 3 uzogawula ozogawula uzogawula awuzugawula ongezugawula ungezugawula
Class 4 izogawula ezogawula izogawula ayizugawula engezugawula ingezugawula
Class 5 lizogawula elizogawula lizogawula alizugawula elingezugawula lingezugawula
Class 6 azogawula azogawula ezogawula awazugawula angezugawula engezugawula
Class 7 sizogawula esizogawula sizogawula asizugawula esingezugawula singezugawula
Class 8 zizogawula ezizogawula zizogawula azizugawula ezingezugawula zingezugawula
Class 9 izogawula ezogawula izogawula ayizugawula engezugawula ingezugawula
Class 10 zizogawula ezizogawula zizogawula azizugawula ezingezugawula zingezugawula
Class 11 luzogawula oluzogawula luzogawula aluzugawula olungezugawula lungezugawula
Class 14 buzogawula obuzogawula buzogawula abuzugawula obungezugawula bungezugawula
Class 15 kuzogawula okuzogawula kuzogawula akuzugawula okungezugawula kungezugawula
Class 17 kuzogawula okuzogawula kuzogawula akuzugawula okungezugawula kungezugawula
Remote future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyogawula engiyogawula ngiyogawula angiyugawula engingeyugawula ngingeyugawula
2nd singular uyogawula oyogawula uyogawula awuyugawula ongeyugawula ungeyugawula
1st plural siyogawula esiyogawula siyogawula asiyugawula esingeyugawula singeyugawula
2nd plural niyogawula eniyogawula niyogawula aniyugawula eningeyugawula ningeyugawula
Class 1 uyogawula oyogawula eyogawula akayugawula ongeyugawula engeyugawula
Class 2 bayogawula abayogawula beyogawula abayugawula abangeyugawula bengeyugawula
Class 3 uyogawula oyogawula uyogawula awuyugawula ongeyugawula ungeyugawula
Class 4 iyogawula eyogawula iyogawula ayiyugawula engeyugawula ingeyugawula
Class 5 liyogawula eliyogawula liyogawula aliyugawula elingeyugawula lingeyugawula
Class 6 ayogawula ayogawula eyogawula awayugawula angeyugawula engeyugawula
Class 7 siyogawula esiyogawula siyogawula asiyugawula esingeyugawula singeyugawula
Class 8 ziyogawula eziyogawula ziyogawula aziyugawula ezingeyugawula zingeyugawula
Class 9 iyogawula eyogawula iyogawula ayiyugawula engeyugawula ingeyugawula
Class 10 ziyogawula eziyogawula ziyogawula aziyugawula ezingeyugawula zingeyugawula
Class 11 luyogawula oluyogawula luyogawula aluyugawula olungeyugawula lungeyugawula
Class 14 buyogawula obuyogawula buyogawula abuyugawula obungeyugawula bungeyugawula
Class 15 kuyogawula okuyogawula kuyogawula akuyugawula okungeyugawula kungeyugawula
Class 17 kuyogawula okuyogawula kuyogawula akuyugawula okungeyugawula kungeyugawula
Present subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngigawule ngingagawuli
2nd singular ugawule ungagawuli
1st plural sigawule singagawuli
2nd plural nigawule ningagawuli
Class 1 agawule angagawuli
Class 2 bagawule bangagawuli
Class 3 ugawule ungagawuli
Class 4 igawule ingagawuli
Class 5 ligawule lingagawuli
Class 6 agawule angagawuli
Class 7 sigawule singagawuli
Class 8 zigawule zingagawuli
Class 9 igawule ingagawuli
Class 10 zigawule zingagawuli
Class 11 lugawule lungagawuli
Class 14 bugawule bungagawuli
Class 15 kugawule kungagawuli
Class 17 kugawule kungagawuli
Past subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngagawula ngangagawula, angagawula, angangagawula
2nd singular wagawula wangagawula, awagawula, awangagawula
1st plural sagawula sangagawula, asagawula, asangagawula
2nd plural nagawula nangagawula, anagawula, anangagawula
Class 1 wagawula wangagawula, akagawula, akangagawula
Class 2 bagawula bangagawula, abagawula, abangagawula
Class 3 wagawula wangagawula, awagawula, awangagawula
Class 4 yagawula yangagawula, ayagawula, ayangagawula
Class 5 lagawula langagawula, alagawula, alangagawula
Class 6 agawula angagawula, awagawula, awangagawula
Class 7 sagawula sangagawula, asagawula, asangagawula
Class 8 zagawula zangagawula, azagawula, azangagawula
Class 9 yagawula yangagawula, ayagawula, ayangagawula
Class 10 zagawula zangagawula, azagawula, azangagawula
Class 11 lwagawula lwangagawula, alwagawula, alwangagawula
Class 14 bagawula bangagawula, abagawula, abangagawula
Class 15 kwagawula kwangagawula, akwagawula, akwangagawula
Class 17 kwagawula kwangagawula, akwagawula, akwangagawula

References[edit]