genu

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See also: ĝenu

English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology[edit]

PIE word
*ǵónu

Borrowed from Latin genu (knee).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

genu (plural genua)

  1. (anatomy, zootomy) The knee.
    Hyponyms: genu valgum, genu varum
    1. A knee-like structure, in particular a bend in the corpus callosum of mammals.

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

Anagrams[edit]

Latin[edit]

Latin Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia la

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

PIE word
*ǵónu

From Proto-Italic *genu, from Proto-Indo-European *ǵónu. Cognate with Ancient Greek γόνῠ (gónu, knee; plant node), German Knie, English knee, Dutch knie.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Classical) IPA(key): /ˈɡe.nuː/, [ˈɡɛnuː] or IPA(key): /ˈɡe.nu/, [ˈɡɛnʊ]
  • (modern Italianate Ecclesiastical) IPA(key): /ˈd͡ʒe.nu/, [ˈd͡ʒɛːnu]
  • Note: the nominative/accusative ending vowel of 4th declension neuters is etymologically expected to be short, and is stated to be so by late grammarians. A long vowel would also be expected to be subject to iambic shortening in most forms. There are only two passages that conclusively require a long scansion.[1][2][3][4]

Noun[edit]

genū n (genitive genūs); fourth declension

  1. (literally, anatomy) a knee, kneejoint, kneepan
    • 4th century, St. Jerome, Vulgate, Philippians 2:10 [2]
      ut in nomine Jesu omne genu flectatur caelestium, terrestrium et infernorum
      that at the name of Jesus every knee should bend, of those in heaven, on earth, and under the earth.
  2. an elbow
  3. (transferred sense) an act of kneeling or beseeching
  4. (transferred sense, botany) a knot, joint
    Synonym: geniculum

Inflection[edit]

Fourth-declension noun (neuter).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative genū genua
Genitive genūs genuum
Dative genū genibus
Accusative genū genua
Ablative genū genibus
Vocative genū genua

A rare genitive singular form genoris is attested epigraphically.[5][6]

  • 1910, Ernst Diehl, editor, Vulgärlateinische Inschriften, Bonn, page 98 f:
    testor nunc superōs: nōn hoc meruisse vidēbar
    in volnus genoris quot subitō occidimus.
    I bear witness before the Gods that I don't think I was deserving
    to have a sudden harm befall my knee

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Portuguese: geio (terrace)[7] (Trás-os-Montes)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Weiss, Michael L. (2009) Outline of the Historical and Comparative Grammar of Latin[1], Ann Arbor: Beech Stave Press, →ISBN, § I D footnote 11, page 252
  2. ^ Vergil, Aeneid 11.859 and Pseudo-Ovid, Nux 106
  3. ^ Diomedis artis grammaticae libri III in Keil H., CGL I, p. 309, 3: "bipertita est quae alterna casuum productione et correptione variatur, ut genu, cornu, gelu. haec enim duobus modis tantum in declinatione variantur, quod quidem productione et correptione distinguimus. nam in nominativo accusativo vocativo correpta u proferuntur, in genetivo dativo ablativo producta.
  4. ^ Flavii Sosipatri Charisii artis grammaticae libri V in Keil H., CGL I, 150, 36: "bipertita forma est quae in neutralibus nominibus u littera finitis est, <in> quibus nominativus et accusativus sociantur, ut genu, veru; genetivum, dativum, ablativum segregat ab his productio."
  5. ^ Peter Stotz (1998) Handbuch zur lateinischen Sprache des Mittelalters. Vierter Band: Formenlehre, Syntax und Stilistik, page 45: “In einem inschriftlichen Gedicht der Antike erscheint die Gen.-Form genoris zu genu
    Peter Stotz (1998) Handbuch zur lateinischen Sprache des Mittelalters. Vierter Band: Formenlehre, Syntax und Stilistik, page 103: “die Gen. sg.-Form genoris zu genu
  6. ^ Hieronymus Geist (collector and translator); Gerhard Pfohl (advisor) (1976) Römische Grabinschriften. Gesammelt und ins Deutsche übertragen, 2nd edition, page 193f
  7. ^ Walther von Wartburg (1928–2002), “genŭcŭlum”, in Französisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German), volume 4: G H I, page 115

Further reading[edit]

  • genu”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • genu in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • genu in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[3], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • (ambiguous) the male, female sex: sexus (not genus) virilis, muliebris
    • (ambiguous) to choose a career, profession: genus vitae (vivendi) or aetatis degendae deligere
    • (ambiguous) to analyse a general division into its specific parts: genus universum in species certas partiri et dividere (Or. 33. 117)
    • (ambiguous) to transplant to Rome one of the branches of poesy: poesis genus ad Romanos transferre
    • (ambiguous) style: genus dicendi (scribendi); oratio
    • (ambiguous) elevated, moderate, plain style: genus dicendi grave or grande, medium, tenue (cf. Or. 5. 20; 6. 21)
    • (ambiguous) a running style: fusum orationis genus
    • (ambiguous) a rough, unpolished style: inconditum dicendi genus (Brut. 69. 242)
    • (ambiguous) a bombastic style: inflatum orationis genus
    • (ambiguous) to adopt the language of everyday life: accedere ad cotidiani sermonis genus