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Reconstructed Roman pugio.


From Latin pugiō.


pugio (plural pugios)

  1. a dagger, poignard, especially the kind used by the Ancient Romans.
    • 1786 — Francis Grose, A Treatise on Ancient Armour and Weapons, page 34.
      The Pugio or Dagger was used by the Romans, a species of that weapon called the Hand Seax was worn by the Saxons, with which they massacred the English on Salisbury Plain in 476.



From Proto-Indo-European *pewǵ-, same source as Ancient Greek πυγμή (pugmḗ, fist).



pūgiō m (genitive pūgiōnis); third declension

  1. a dagger
    • c. 100 CE – 110 CE, Tacitus, Histories 4.29
      multos in moenia egressos pugionibus fodere.
      Many, who had struggled on to the walls, with their short swords they stabbed.


Third declension.

Case Singular Plural
nominative pūgiō pūgiōnēs
genitive pūgiōnis pūgiōnum
dative pūgiōnī pūgiōnibus
accusative pūgiōnem pūgiōnēs
ablative pūgiōne pūgiōnibus
vocative pūgiō pūgiōnēs

Derived terms[edit]



  • pugio in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • pugio in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • pugio in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition, 1883–1887)
  • pugio in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • pugio in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • pugio in William Smith et al., editor (1890) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London: William Wayte. G. E. Marindin