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Alternative forms[edit]


xipho- +‎ -pagus


xiphopagus (not comparable)

  1. (of conjoined twins) United at the xiphoid process.
    • 1903 August 22, The Medical News[1], volume 83, page 383:
      Of particular interest in the Section on Obstetrics is the detailed article touching on the xiphopagus twins Radica and Doodica.
    • 1986, Harry Hayes, An Anthology of Plastic Surgery, page 183:
      This type of anomaly, along with the xiphopagus type, is especially compatible with survival.
    • 1995, L.G. Keith, Multiple Pregnancy: Epidemiology, Gestation, and Perinatal Outcome[2]:
      Second, a discordant presentation does not preclude the diagnosis of conjoined twins, particularly in xiphopagus twins.



xiphopagus (countable and uncountable, plural xiphopagi)

  1. (countable) Either of a pair of congenitally joined twins (Siamese twin) united at the xiphoid process.
    • 1885, Ernst Ziegler, A Text-book of Pathological Anatomy and Pathogenesis[3]:
      Xiphopagi are those in which the ensiform processes are united by a cartilaginous bridge. The peritoneum passes for some distance into the connecting structure (the well-known Siamese twins were xiphopagi).
    • 1901 May 4, “The New Living "Siamese" Twins”, in The Philadelphia Medical Journal[4], page 832:
      Dr. Chapot-Prevost, who successfully operated upon the only other living xiphopagus, has just published a report of his examination of the new living Chinese twins, Liou-Tang-Sen and Liou-Seng-Sen.
    • 2012, Richard Birnbaum, A Clinical manual of the malformations and congenital diseases of the foetus:
      In the case of a xiphopagus, there is most commonly only a band-like union in the region of the xiphoid process of the sternum.
  2. (uncountable) The condition of being such a twin.
    • 1893, “A Case of Living Xiphopagus”, in The Medical and Surgical Reporter[5], volume 68, page 28:
      They were born in the East Indies, and make the eighth case of xiphopagus reported.
    • 2010, Diana Bianchi, Fetology: Diagnosis and Management of the Fetal Patient:
      The common twin types include thoracopagus, xiphopagus or omphalopagus, pygopagus, ischiopagus, and craniopagus.
    • 2011, Bruno Bissonnette, Pediatric Anesthesia: Basic Principles, State of the Art, Future[6]:
      Thoracopagus is the most common type of conjoined twinning and, along with omphalopagus/xiphopagus, represents about 75% of reported cases.