čakls

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Latvian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Derived from an obsolete verb tekt (to rush, to run, to flow), from Proto-Indo-European *tekʷ- (to run, to flow), whence also tecēt (to flow); the meaning changed from “moving quickly” to “working hard.” The ea change parallels tecēt, taka (path). The tč change (palatalization) is not regular in Latvian, which suggests either an expressive or affective feature (compare aiča, meiča, from aita (sheep), meita (girl, daughter)), or the former existence of parallel forms with a and e: *tekls + *takls*tʲakls; compare dialectal čekls ([tʃækls]). Note that the same stem also palatalized in Tocharian cake (“river”), Avestan 𐬙𐬀𐬐 (tak, stream, torrent); since both the ancient Balts and the Tocharians were in direct contact with Northern Iranian tribes, this palatalization may be the result of Iranian influence. Cognates include Sanskrit तकुः (tákuḥ, hurried, quick, mobile), तक्वः (takváḥ, fast, quick) (compare तक्ति (takti, to hurry), Scythian taka ([tʲaka], quick, strong), Ossetian тӕх (tæx, quick stream, torrent; quick, fast, turbulent; dedicated), Ancient Greek ταχύς (takhús, swift, quick, agile).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

čakls (def. čaklais, comp. čaklāks, sup. visčaklākais; adv. čakli)

  1. industrious, hard-working, diligent (who works well, who works a lot)
    čakls darbinieksindustrious employee
    čakls skolniekshard-working student
    čaklākā stradniece — the most industrious (female) worker
    čakls kolektīvshard-working team
    čakls kā skudra, kā biteindustrious as an ant, a bee (i.e., very industrious)

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “čakls” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7