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From Proto-Indo-Iranian *wŕ̥ka- (wolf)*urka-, from Proto-Indo-European *wĺ̥kʷos (wolf). Cognate with Avestan 𐬬𐬆𐬵𐬭𐬐𐬀 (vəhrka), Old Persian 𐎺𐎼𐎣 (varka) (Persian گرگ (gorg)), Latin lupus, Ancient Greek λύκος (lúkos), Lithuanian vilkas, Old Church Slavonic влькъ (vlĭkŭ). Native grammarians etymologize it as "the tearer" and connect it to root √vrasc, compare वृक्ण (vṛkṇa).


वृक (vṛ́kam

  1. wolf; dog; jackal
    • RV 1.183.4a
      मा वां वर्को मा वर्कीरा दधर्षीन मा परि वर्क्तमुतमाति धक्तम
      mā vāṃ vṛko mā vṛkīrā dadharṣīn mā pari varktamutamāti dhaktam
      Let not the wolf, let not the she-wolf harm you. Forsake me not, nor pass me by or others.
  2. crow; owl
  3. thief; kshatriya
  4. plough
  5. thunderbolt
  6. moon; sun
  7. (botany) a kind of plant (= बक (baka))
  8. the resin of Pinus longifolia, now Pinus palustris


Proper noun[edit]

वृक (Vṛ́kam

  1. name of an Asura
  2. name of a son of Krishna
  3. name of a king
  4. name of a son of Ruruka (or Bharuka)
  5. name Prithu
  6. name of a son of Shura
  7. name of a son of Vatsaka
  8. (in the plural) name of a people and a country (belonging to मध्यदेश (madhya-deśa)) (compare वार्केण्य (vārkeṇya))

Related terms[edit]



  • Sir Monier Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English dictionary etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1898, page 1008
  • Arthur A. Macdonell, A practical Sanskrit dictionary with transliteration, accentuation, and etymological analysis throughout, London: Oxford University Press, 1893, page 294
  • Horace Hayman Wilson, A dictionary in Sanscrit and English, 2nd ed., Calcutta: Education Press, Circular Road, 1832, page 700
  • Carl Capeller, A Sanskrit-English dictionary, based upon the St. Petersburg lexicons, London: Luzac & Co., 1891, page 516