いらっしゃる

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Japanese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Originally a contraction of いらせらる (iraseraru), itself an honorific conjugation of 入ら (ira, the 未然形 (mizenkei, imperfective) of verb iru, “to come in, to go in; to arrive; to be in a place”) + (se, the 未然形 (mizenkei, imperfective) of honorific auxiliary verb su) + らる (raru, the older form of passivizing auxiliary verb rareru, here serving as another honorific).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

いらっしゃる (intransitive, irregular conjugation, romaji irassharu)

  1. (honorific) to go
    • 1994, Yasuo Uchida, 三州吉良殺人事件 (Sanshū Kira Satsujin Jiken, “Murder in Kira, Sanshū”) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Kadokawa Shoten Publishing Co., Ltd, ISBN 4-0416-0730-2, ISBN 9784041607305, page 304:
      孫娘 (まごむすめ) ()をよじらんばかりに恐縮 (きょうしゅく)して、「あの、これからどちらへいらっしゃるのでしょうか?」と ()いた。
      magomusume wa mi o yojiran bakari ni kyōshuku shite, "ano, kore kara dochira e irassharu no deshō ka?" to kiita.
      The granddaughter asked, so shyly that she was practically writhing, "Um, where might you be going next?"
  2. (honorific) to come
    • [1977], Michio Ushio, 美しい村 (Utsukushii Mura, “Beautiful Village”)[1] (in Japanese), Google Play Books, page 351:
      でも一体 (いったい)何時 (なんじ)ごろあなた (がた)はこちらへいらっしゃるのかしら?
      demo ittai, nanji goro anatagata wa kochira e irassharu no kashira?
      But then, around what time would you be coming, I wonder?
  3. (honorific) to be
    山田 (やまだ)さんがいらっしゃいますでしょうか。
    yamada-san ga irasshaimasu deshō ka.
    Is Yamada-san there? (such as when telephoning a place of business)
    元気 (げんき)いらっしゃいますか。
    o-genki de irasshaimasu ka.
    Are you doing well?

Usage notes[edit]

As listed above, this term can variously mean going, coming, or being in one place. Which meaning is intended depends on context. Compare お出で (​oide) of similarly broad and context-dependent meaning.

Conjugation[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3