Appendix:Proto-Germanic/-ōną

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This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Germanic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From two sources, both reflecting earlier *-ōjaną:

  • From Proto-Indo-European *-eh₂yé-, an innovated compound suffix from *-eh₂ (eh₂-stem noun suffix) + *-yé- (denominative suffix). These were originally formed as denominative verbs from ō-stem nouns. When attached to thematic (a-stem) nouns, the thematic vowel was also retained, but the resulting compound suffix *-eyé- became part of the first weak class instead.
  • From Proto-Indo-European *-(e)h₂yé-, an innovated compound suffix from *-(e)h₂- (factitive verb suffix) which was originally athematic, but later extended with the thematic present suffix *-yé-.

Cognates include Latin -āre (first conjugation), Ancient Greek -άω (-áō) contracted verbs, Sanskrit presents in [script?] (-ā́yati)[Devanagari?].

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

*-ōną

  1. Creates denominative verbs from nouns.
  2. Creates factitive verbs from adjectives.

Conjugation[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

This class eventually became the dominant and most productive verb class in all daughter languages. In northern West Germanic, the suffix was reanalysed and extended to -ōjaną based on the first and third class of weak verbs.

  • Old English: -ian
  • Old Frisian: -ia
  • Old Saxon: -on, -oian
  • Old Dutch: -on
    • Middle Dutch: -en (merged with all other verbs)
  • Old High German: -on
    • German: -en (merged with all other verbs)
  • Old Norse: -a
    • Icelandic: -a
    • Faroese: -a
    • Norwegian:
      • Bokmål: -e
      • Nynorsk: -a
    • Swedish: -a
    • Danish: -e
  • Gothic: -𐍉𐌽 (-ōn)