Appendix:Proto-Germanic/-janą

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This entry contains Proto-Germanic reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Germanic[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From a merger of several Proto-Indo-European suffixes, which had become alike because of the combination of w:Sievers' law (j/ij) and i-mutation:

  • *-yé- (denominative suffix) attached to athematic stems. Cognates include Ancient Greek denominatives with -y- metathesis, verbs in -ίω (-íō) and -ύω (-úō), Sanskrit denominative verbs in [script?] (-yáti)[Devanagari?].
  • *-eyé-, a compound suffix of *-e- (noun thematic vowel) + the above suffix. Cognates include most Latin -īre (fourth conjugation) verbs, some -ēre (second conjugation) verbs, most Ancient Greek -έω (-éō) contracted verbs, Sanskrit denominative verbs in [script?] (-áyati)[Devanagari?].
  • *-éye- (causative suffix). Cognates include Latin causatives in -ēre (second conjugation), Ancient Greek causative -έω (-éō) contracted verbs, Sanskrit causative verbs in [script?] (-áyati)[Devanagari?].

Verb[edit]

*-(i)janą

  1. Derives causatives from basic strong verbs, with a sense of 'cause to do (the action of the verb)'. The stem vowel of the derived verb becomes that of the singular past tense, and the final consonant becomes the voiced Verner alternant.
  2. Derives denominatives from nouns and factitives from adjectives.
Conjugation[edit]

Following a short stem, which consists of a short vowel followed by a single consonant, the suffix is *-janą.

Following a long stem, which has either a long vowel or diphthong, or a short vowel followed by several consonants, the suffix is *-ijaną.

Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

This suffix remained productive only in Gothic. It was preserved in Old Norse but was no longer productive in that language, its function having been taken over by *-ōną. In West Germanic, it had already almost disappeared in most languages except after -r-, and was no longer productive in those that retained it.

  • Old English: -an (merged with strong verb ending), -ian (after r).
  • Old Frisian: -a (merged with strong verb ending), -ia (after r)
  • Old Saxon: -ian
  • Old Dutch: -en, -ien (after r)
    • Middle Dutch: -en (merged with all other verbs)
  • Old High German: -en, -ien (after r)
    • German: -en (merged with all other verbs)
  • Old Norse: -ja (only after short stems)
  • Gothic: -𐌾𐌰𐌽 (-jan)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *-h₁yé-, an innovated compound suffix from *-éh₁- (stative verb suffix) which was originally athematic, but later extended with the thematic present suffix *-yé- based on the past participle.[1] Cognate with Latin stative verbs in -ēre (second conjugation).

Verb[edit]

*-(i)janą

  1. Creates stative verbs either directly from roots or from other verbs.
Conjugation[edit]

Following a short stem, which consists of a short vowel followed by a single consonant, the suffix is *-janą.

Following a long stem, which has either a long vowel or diphthong, or a short vowel followed by several consonants, the suffix is *-ijaną.

Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

This suffix was no longer productive in any of the daughter languages, and in West Germanic it quickly became a relic class and mostly merged with the second weak class, except in Old High German where it was preserved longer. In Old High German and Gothic, the class of verbs formed by this suffix merged with those derived with *-āną, creating a single unified third weak class.

  • Old High German: -en
    • German: -en (merged with all other verbs)
  • Old Norse: -ja (only after short stems)
  • Gothic: -𐌰𐌽 (-an)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Don Ringe, From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press, 2006