drošs

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See also: dross

Latvian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *drans-, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰers-, *dʰres-, *dʰros- (to dare, to be brave, to attack), related to *der- (to peel, to pluck, to slice). An original u-stem *druosus gave rise to parallel forms drošs and (dialectal) dross. From the dialectal form were derived drosme (courage), drosmīgs (courageous). Cognates include Lithuanian drąsùs, Old Prussian dyrsos (brave) (nom. fem. pl. or nom. masc. sg.), dirstlan (energetic, impressive), Proto-Slavic *dьrzъ (Old Church Slavonic дръзъ (drŭzŭ), дрьзъ (drĭzŭ), Russian дерзкий (dérzkij, impertinent), Czech drzý, Polish dziarski (dashing, youthful, quick, fast)), Sanskrit धृषुः (dhṛṣúḥ, neat), धृष्णुः (dhṛṣṇúḥ, brave, strong), Ancient Greek θρασύς (thrasús, brave, reckless) (< *dʰr̥s-), Latin infestus (unsafe, hostile).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

drošs (def. drošais, comp. drošāks, sup. visdrošākais; adv. droši)

  1. brave, fearless, confident (not afraid, behaving freely, unconstrained)
    Aijai patīk droši, vīrišķīgi cilvēki — Aija likes brave, masculine people (i.e., men)
    baloži kļuva tik droši, ka savam kopējam sēdēja uz pleciem — the pigeons became so fearless that they sat on their fellows' shoulders
  2. brave, free, confident (showing, expressing bravery, freedom from constraints, worries)
    droša izturēšanāsconfident demeanor
    drošs prātsbrave, confident mind, spirit
    droša uzstāšanāsconfident speech
    droša atbildeconfident answer
    runāt drošā balsī — to speak in a confident, (care)free voice
    bet visvairāk viņu pārsteidza Edītes mierīgā izturēšanās, viņas drošais, atklātais skatiens — but above all he was surprised by Edīte's calm demeanor, her confident, open look
  3. confident, sure, certain
    sportists bija drošs par savu uzvaru — the athlete was sure of his victory
    ja Edgars ir solījis, Aina var būt droša, viņš steidzas mājup — if Edgars promised, (then) Aina can be sure (that) he is hurrying home
  4. safe (not at risk, not exposed to danger, which protects, offers protection)
    drošs patvērumssafe haven
    droša patvertnesafe shelter
  5. safe (not at risk, assured, guaranteed)
    drošs stāvoklissafe state, condition
    mani uzņēmumi visi ir labi nostādīti; peļņa pilnīgi droša! — my businesses are all well structured; profits are fully safe (= guaranteed)
  6. safe, reliable (which can be trusted)
    drošās rokās — in safe hands
    viņam visdrošākais sargs un vislabākā pajumte ir mātes tuvums — to him, the safest guard and the best shelter is (his) mother's proximity
  7. safe, reliable (which raises no doubts, unquestionable)
    drošās ziņasreliable information, news
    droši datireliable data
  8. (of thoughts, beliefs) safe, strong, confident
    droša pārliecība par uzvaruconfident belief in victory
    bet visas cerības, drošas un nedrošas, sašķīda vienā pašā acumirklī kā ziepju burbuļi — but all hope, confident or not, came together in the same moment like soap bubbles

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “drošs” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7