galva

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See also: galvā

Latvian[edit]

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 Galva on Latvian Wikipedia

Wikipedia lv

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *galwāˀ, from Proto-Indo-European *gʷol- (spike, tip, peak) (whence also Latvian gals (end)) with an extra suffix *-wā. The meaning evolution was probably “spike, peak” → “top part” → “head.” A few researchers have suggested other Proto-Indo-European stems (*ghel- (stone), or *gol- (naked)). Cognates include Lithuanian galvà, Old Prussian gallū (from *galvū, from *galva), galwo (head of boot), Sudovian kałfa (from *galva), Proto-Slavic *golva (Old Church Slavonic глава (glava), Russian голова (golová), Ukrainian голова (holová), Belarusian галава (halavá), dialectal голаў (holaŭ), Bulgarian глава (glavá), Czech hlava, Polish głowa), Hittite [script?] (ḫalanta) (where comes from a guttural), perhaps Old Armenian գլուխ (glux).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

(file)

Noun[edit]

galva f (4th declension)

  1. (anatomy) head (top or front of the body, where the brain is located)
    cilvēka, suņa, čūskas galva — a human, dog's, snake's head
    galvas muskuļihead muscles
    pagriezt galvu — to turn one's head
    pamāt ar galvu — to nod one's head
    saņemt galvu rokās — to take one's head in one's hands
    purināt, kratīt galvu — to shake one's head
    galva sāp — the head hurts
    galvas tableteshead(ache) tablets, pills
  2. (anatomy) hair, feathers (on the head)
    sirma galva — gray hair
    mazgāt galvu — to wash one's hair
    sukāt, ķemmēt galvu — to brush, to comb one's hair
    galva balta kā ābelehair as white as an apple tree
  3. on, or around, the head (1)
    likt cepuri galvā — to put a hat on one's head
    siet lakatu galvā — to tie a scarf around one's head
  4. life
    riskēt ar savu galvu — to gamble with one's head (= life)
  5. mind, intelligence, understanding, memory
    gaiša, gudra galva — bright, smart head
    cilvēks ar galvu — a person with head (= wise, intelligent)
    zināt no galvas — to know (something) from the head (= by heart)
    rēķināt galvā — to calculate in one's head
    paturēt skaidru galvu — to keep a clear head (= remain calm)
  6. top (especially round) part of an object
    naglas, skrūves galva — the head of a nail, a screw
    āmura, cirvja galva — the head of a hammer, an axe
  7. authoritative person, boss, leader
    valdības galva — the head of the government
    ģimenes galva — the head of the family
  8. a person or animal as a counting unit
    septiņu galvu liela ģimene — a family with seven heads (= members)

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “galva” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7

Lithuanian[edit]

Lithuanian Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia lt

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *galwāˀ. Cognate with Proto-Slavic *golva, Latvian galva, Old Prussian gallū.

Noun[edit]

galvà f (plural galvos) stress pattern 3

  1. head (part of the body)

Declension[edit]