viesis

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *weiš- (with metathesis of ei to ie), from Proto-Indo-European *weyḱ- (house, settlement), from *wey- (to cut, to bend, to braid, to weave). Initially viesis was inflected both as an i-stem and as an o-stem (*viesis, *viesas; the i-stem plural form viesis was still in use in the 17th century), whence its present-day irregular (non-s/š-alternating) declension. The change in meaning, from “house” to “guest,” occurred via old compounds like *vies-pats “lord of the house” (during celebrations, the lord of the house was also the host, the “lord of the guests,” which led to the reinterpretation of the meaning of the initial vies-), and probably also under the influence of (now dated) verb viesēt, originally “to go to someone's house, village,” later “to visit,” “to be a visitor.”

Cognates include Lithuanian archaic viešis (guest, visitor), viešpats (deity; lord, governor), viẽšės (a visit), viešė́ti (to visit), váišės (celebrations, feasts), vaišìnti (to entertain, to treat), Old Prussian waispattin (wife), Proto-Slavic *vьsь (village) (Russian весь (vesʹ), Russian dialectal веслина (veslina), весца (véslina, vescá, small village), Old East Slavic весь (vesĭ), Belarusian вёска (vjóska),Czech ves, Polish wieś (village)), Gothic 𐍅𐌴𐌹𐌷𐍃 (weihs, village), Sanskrit विश् (viś, village, settlement, tribe), विश्पतिः (viśpatiḥ, lord of the house, village elder, chief), वेशः (veśaḥ, inhabitant, neighbor), Ancient Greek οἶκος (oîkos), dialectal ϝοῖκος (woîkos, house, dwelling, fence, cage), Latin vīcus (group of houses, village).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Noun[edit]

viesis m (2nd declension, feminine form: viese)

  1. (male) visitor, guest (a person who comes to visit someone, and/or stays for a short time)
    kāzu viesi — wedding guests
    ilgi gaidīts viesis — long-awaited guest
    lūgti viesi — invited guests
    rets viesis — rare guest
    nelūgts viesis — uninvited guest
    viesu grāmataguestbook
    saņemt, uzņemt viesus — to receive guests
    pavadīt viesus — to accompany the guests
    aicināt viesus pie galda — to invite the guests to the table
    iet pie kāda viesos — to visit someone (lit. to go to someone in (= as) guests)
  2. (male) guest (a person, usually officially invited, who comes to participate in an event)
    ārzemju viesi — foreign guests
    sagaidīt konferences viesus lidostā — to meet the conference guests at the airport
    skatītāji, klausītāji aplaudēja viesim — the audience applauded the guest

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “viesis” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (Rīga: AVOTS) ISBN: 9984-700-12-7.