οἶδα

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Ancient Greek[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *wóyde, from *weyd-. Compare the very closely related εἴδομαι (eídomai, to seem). Cognates include Old Armenian գիտեմ (gitem), Sanskrit वेद (veda), Latin vīdī, and Proto-Germanic *witaną (English wit).

Pronunciation[edit]

 
  • (5th BCE Attic) IPA(key): /ói̯.da/
  • (1st CE Egyptian) IPA(key): /ˈy.da/
  • (4th CE Koine) IPA(key): /ˈy.ða/
  • (10th CE Byzantine) IPA(key): /ˈy.ða/
  • (15th CE Constantinopolitan) IPA(key): /ˈi.ða/
  • Verb[edit]

    οἶδᾰ (oîda)

    1. (transitive) to know, be acquainted with [+accusative = something]
      1. (with neuter accusative plural of an adjective): have a quality in one's heart
      2. (transitive) to be skilled in [+genitive = something]
    2. (intransitive) to know how to [+infinitive = do something]
    3. (transitive, when main verb and participle have separate subjects) to know that [+accusative noun and accusative participle = someone else does something]
      1. (intransitive, when subject of main verb and subject of participle are the same) to know that [+nominative participle = one does something]
      2. to know that, with accusative and then an indirect statement introduced by ὅτι (hóti) or ὡς (hōs)
      3. (negative) οὐκ οἶδα εἰ (ouk oîda ei): I don't know if or whether, I doubt that
    4. (parenthetic)
    5. (a superlative is often followed by the phrase "ὧν ἴσμεν")

    Usage notes[edit]

    The perfect inflections function as present tense, and the pluperfect as imperfect. The inflection is highly variable and irregular, and reflects a more archaic inflectional pattern.

    Inflection[edit]

    Related terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    • *εἴδω in Liddell & Scott (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, Oxford: Clarendon Press
    • οἶδα in Liddell & Scott (1889) An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon, New York: Harper & Brothers
    • οἶδα in Autenrieth, Georg (1891) A Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges, New York: Harper and Brothers
    • οἶδα in Cunliffe, Richard J. (1924) A Lexicon of the Homeric Dialect: Expanded Edition, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, published 1963
    • οἶδα in Slater, William J. (1969) Lexicon to Pindar, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter
    • G1492 in Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance to the Bible, 1979
    • Woodhouse, S. C. (1910) English–Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language[1], London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited.