οἶδα

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Ancient Greek[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *wóyde, from *weyd-. Compare εἶδον (eîdon, to see) and εἴδομαι (eídomai, to seem), which originate from different aspectual forms of the same verbal root. Cognates include Old Armenian գիտեմ (gitem), Sanskrit वेद (veda), Latin vīdī, and Proto-Germanic *witaną (English wit).

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Verb[edit]

οἶδᾰ (oîda)

  1. (transitive) to know, be acquainted with [+accusative = something]
    1. (with neuter accusative plural of an adjective): have a quality in one's heart
    2. (transitive) to be skilled in [+genitive = something]
  2. (intransitive) to know how to [+infinitive = do something]
  3. (transitive, when main verb and participle have separate subjects) to know that [+accusative noun and accusative participle = someone else does something]
    1. (intransitive, when subject of main verb and subject of participle are the same) to know that [+nominative participle = one does something]
    2. to know that, with accusative and then an indirect statement introduced by ὅτι (hóti) or ὡς (hōs)
    3. (negative) οὐκ οἶδα εἰ (ouk oîda ei): I don't know if or whether, I doubt that
  4. (parenthetic)
  5. (a superlative is often followed by the phrase "ὧν ἴσμεν")

Usage notes[edit]

The perfect inflections function as present tense, and the pluperfect as imperfect. The inflection is highly variable and irregular, and reflects a more archaic inflectional pattern.

Inflection[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]