नमस्

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Sanskrit[edit]

Alternative scripts[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-Iranian *námas (homage, salutation), from Proto-Indo-European *némos. Cognate with Avestan 𐬥𐬆𐬨𐬀𐬢𐬵𐬋(nəmaŋhō), Sogdian [script needed] (namāč, homage; prayer; reverence), Persian نماز(namāz, prayer, worship), Ancient Greek νέμος (némos). The Sanskrit root is नम् (nam).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

नमस् (námasn

  1. (with dative case) bow, obeisance, homage, adoration; greeting, salutation
    • c. 1700 BCE – 1200 BCE, Ṛgveda 1.27.13:
      नमो॑ म॒हद्भ्यो॒ नमो॑ अर्भ॒केभ्यो॒ नमो॒ युव॑भ्यो॒ नम॑ आशि॒नेभ्यः॑ ।
      यजा॑म दे॒वान्यदि॑ श॒क्नवा॑म॒ मा ज्याय॑सः॒ शंस॒मा वृ॑क्षि देवाः ॥
      namo mahadbhyo namo arbhakebhyo namo yuvabhyo nama āśinebhyaḥ .
      yajāma devānyadi śaknavāma mā jyāyasaḥ śaṃsamā vṛkṣi devāḥ .
      Homage to the mighty and homage to the lesser [gods]; homage to the younger and homage to the elder [gods]!
      Let us, if we have power, pay the gods worship: no better prayer than this, you gods, acknowledge.
    • c. 1700 BCE – 1200 BCE, Ṛgveda 5.73.10:
      इ॒मा ब्रह्मा॑णि॒ वर्ध॑ना॒श्विभ्यां॑ सन्तु॒ शंत॑मा ।
      या तक्षा॑म॒ रथाँ॑ इ॒वावो॑चाम बृ॒हन्नमः॑
      imā brahmāṇi vardhanāśvibhyāṃ santu śaṃtamā .
      yā takṣāma rathām̐ ivāvocāma bṛhannamaḥ .
      Most pleasing to the Aśvins be these prayers which magnify their might,
      Which we have fashioned, even as chariots high homage have we spoken forth.
    • c. 400 BCE, Mahābhārata 14.8.31.1:
      एवं कृत्वा नमस्तस्मै महादेवाय रंहसे ।
      evaṃ kṛtvā namastasmai mahādevāya raṃhase .
      Having done thus, I [give] homage to the great god, Shiva.
  2. food
    Synonyms: भोजन (bhojana), खादन (khādana), भक्षण (bhakṣaṇa), आश (āśa); see also Thesaurus:खान
  3. thunderbolt
    Synonyms: वज्र (vajra), हीर (hīra)
  4. gift, present

Declension[edit]

Neuter as-stem declension of नमस् (námas)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative नमः
námaḥ
नमसी
námasī
नमांसि
námāṃsi
Vocative नमः
námaḥ
नमसी
námasī
नमांसि
námāṃsi
Accusative नमः
námaḥ
नमसी
námasī
नमांसि
námāṃsi
Instrumental नमसा
námasā
नमोभ्याम्
námobhyām
नमोभिः
námobhiḥ
Dative नमसे
námase
नमोभ्याम्
námobhyām
नमोभ्यः
námobhyaḥ
Ablative नमसः
námasaḥ
नमोभ्याम्
námobhyām
नमोभ्यः
námobhyaḥ
Genitive नमसः
námasaḥ
नमसोः
námasoḥ
नमसाम्
námasām
Locative नमसि
námasi
नमसोः
námasoḥ
नमःसु
námaḥsu

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Prakrit: 𑀡𑀫𑁄 (ṇamo)
  • Pali: namas
  • Chinese: 南無
  • Japanese: 南無

References[edit]