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The stem hiraṇ- is from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰl̥h₃-en-, from *ǵʰelh₃- (to shine). Cognate to Avestan 𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬦𐬌𐬌𐬀 (zarańiia-), Old Persian 𐎭𐎼𐎴𐎹 (daraniya-) and English gold.


हिरण्य (híraṇyan

  1. gold (originally 'uncoined gold or other precious metal', in later language 'coined gold' or 'money')
  2. any vessel or ornament made of gold (as 'a golden spoon')
  3. a gold piece or coin
  4. cowry
  5. semen virile
  6. substance, imperishable matter
  7. a particular measure
  8. the Datura or thorn apple


Neuter a-stem declension of हिरण्य
Nom. sg. हिरण्यम् (hiraṇyam)
Gen. sg. हिरण्यस्य (hiraṇyasya)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative हिरण्यम् (hiraṇyam) हिरण्ये (hiraṇye) हिरण्यानि (hiraṇyāni)
Vocative हिरण्य (hiraṇya) हिरण्ये (hiraṇye) हिरण्यानि (hiraṇyāni)
Accusative हिरण्यम् (hiraṇyam) हिरण्ये (hiraṇye) हिरण्यानि (hiraṇyāni)
Instrumental हिरण्येन (hiraṇyena) हिरण्याभ्याम् (hiraṇyābhyām) हिरण्यैः (hiraṇyaiḥ)
Dative हिरण्याय (hiraṇyāya) हिरण्याभ्याम् (hiraṇyābhyām) हिरण्येभ्यः (hiraṇyebhyaḥ)
Ablative हिरण्यात् (hiraṇyāt) हिरण्याभ्याम् (hiraṇyābhyām) हिरण्येभ्यः (hiraṇyebhyaḥ)
Genitive हिरण्यस्य (hiraṇyasya) हिरण्ययोः (hiraṇyayoḥ) हिरण्यानाम् (hiraṇyānām)
Locative हिरण्ये (hiraṇye) हिरण्ययोः (hiraṇyayoḥ) हिरण्येषु (hiraṇyeṣu)



  • Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1898) A Sanskrit-English dictionary etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages, Oxford: Clarendon Press, page 1299
  • Mayrhofer, Manfred (1996) Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen [Etymological Dictionary of Old Indo-Aryan] (in German), volume 2, Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, page 816