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The stem hiraṇ- is from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰl̥h₃-en-, from *ǵʰelh₃- ‎(to shine). Cognate to Avestan 𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬦𐬌𐬌𐬀 ‎(zarańiia-) and Old Persian 𐎭𐎼𐎴𐎹 ‎(daraniya-).


हिरण्य ‎(híraṇyan

  1. gold (originally 'uncoined gold or other precious metal', in later language 'coined gold' or 'money')
  2. any vessel or ornament made of gold (as 'a golden spoon')
  3. a gold piece or coin
  4. cowry
  5. semen virile
  6. substance, imperishable matter
  7. a particular measure
  8. the Datura or thorn apple


Neuter a-stem declension of हिरण्य
Nom. sg. हिरण्यम् ‎(hiraṇyam)
Gen. sg. हिरण्यस्य ‎(hiraṇyasya)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative हिरण्यम् ‎(hiraṇyam) हिरण्ये ‎(hiraṇye) हिरण्यानि ‎(hiraṇyāni)
Vocative हिरण्य ‎(hiraṇya) हिरण्ये ‎(hiraṇye) हिरण्यानि ‎(hiraṇyāni)
Accusative हिरण्यम् ‎(hiraṇyam) हिरण्ये ‎(hiraṇye) हिरण्यानि ‎(hiraṇyāni)
Instrumental हिरण्येन ‎(hiraṇyena) हिरण्याभ्याम् ‎(hiraṇyābhyām) हिरण्यैः ‎(hiraṇyaiḥ)
Dative हिरण्या ‎(hiraṇyā) हिरण्याभ्याम् ‎(hiraṇyābhyām) हिरण्येभ्यः ‎(hiraṇyebhyaḥ)
Ablative हिरण्यात् ‎(hiraṇyāt) हिरण्याभ्याम् ‎(hiraṇyābhyām) हिरण्येभ्यः ‎(hiraṇyebhyaḥ)
Genitive हिरण्यस्य ‎(hiraṇyasya) हिरण्ययोः ‎(hiraṇyayoḥ) हिरण्यानाम् ‎(hiraṇyānām)
Locative हिरण्ये ‎(hiraṇye) हिरण्ययोः ‎(hiraṇyayoḥ) हिरण्येषु ‎(hiraṇyeṣu)


  • Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1898) A Sanskrit-English dictionary etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages, Oxford: Clarendon Press, page 1299
  • Mayrhofer, Manfred (1996) Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen (in German), volume 2, Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, page 816