From ਪਾਕ (pāk, “pure, holy, immaculate, chaste, undefiled”) and -ਇਸਤਾਨ (-estān, “-stan”), which derive from Persian. The word was coined by Choudhary Rahmat Ali, who published it in the pamphlet Now or Never issued on January 28, 1933, as an acronym of the names of the "Muslim homelands" of western India—Punjab, Afghania, Kashmir, Sindh, and Balochistan. An i was later added to the name to ease pronunciation.
- ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨੀ (pākistānī)
- “ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ”, in Punjabipedia [ਪੰਜਾਬੀਪੀਡੀਆ] (in Punjabi), Patiala: Punjabi University, 2019