Wiktionary:Punjabi transliteration

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search

These are the rules concerning transliteration in Punjabi entries.

Gurmukhi[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Letter Trans. IPA
s [s]
h [ɦ]
k [k]
kh [kʰ]
g [g] invalid IPA characters (g), replace g with ɡ
gh [k◌̀]*
[ŋ]
c [t͡ʃ]
ch [t͡ʃʰ]
j [d͡ʒ]
jh [t͡ʃ◌̀]*
ñ [ɲ]
[ʈ]
ṭh [ʈʰ]
[ɖ]
ḍh [ʈ◌̀]*
[ɳ]
t [t̪]
th [t̪ʰ]
d [d̪]
dh [t̪◌̀]*
n [n]
p [p]
ph [pʰ]
b [b]
bh [p◌̀]*
m [m]
y [j]
r [ɾ]
l [l]
v [ʋ]
[ɽ]

Nukta[edit]

The nukta () makes some more consonants:

ਸ਼ ś [ʃ]
ਖ਼ x [x]
ਗ਼ ġ [ɣ]
ਜ਼ z [z]
ਫ਼ f [f]
ਲ਼ [ɭ]

Vowels[edit]

Letter Diacritic Trans. IPA
none a [ə]
ā [äː]
ਿ i [ɪ]
ī [iː]
u [ʊ]
ū [uː]
e [e]
ai [ɛ]
o [o]
au [ɔ]

Diacritics[edit]

  • The ṭippi () and bindi () indication nasal vowels and nasalization, respectively.
  • The addak () geminates the following consonant.
  • The halant () is rarely used to mark the suppression of the inherent vowel a.
  • The visarga () makes a voiceless h sound.

Shahmukhi[edit]

TBD