زیر

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See also: زير and ریز

Persian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Persian [script needed] (hcdl /⁠azēr⁠/, underneath), from Old Persian *hacā-adari, equivalent to 𐏃𐎨𐎠 (h-c-a /⁠hacā⁠/, from, from Proto-Iranian *háčaH, from Proto-Indo-European *sékʷ-eh₂) + *adari (under, from Proto-Iranian *Hadárah, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *Hadʰáras, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁n̥dʰ-ér-o-s, distantly related to English under).

The prepositional usage is a contraction of older در زیرِ (dar zir-e, literally in the underneath of) or به زیرِ (be zir-e, literally at the underneath of); the full forms are dated in Iran but more common in the eastern lands.

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Readings
Classical reading? zēr
Dari reading? zēr
Iranian reading? zir
Tajik reading? zer

Noun[edit]

زیر (zir) (plural زیرها (zir-hâ))

  1. lower part; bottom
  2. something underneath
  3. kasra (vowel diacritic placed under the letter)
    Synonym: کسره (kasre)
  4. (music) high-pitched tune; soprano or treble
    • 1177, Farīd ud-Dīn ʿAṭṭār, “The tale of the nightingale”, in منطق‌الطیر [The Conference of the Birds]‎[1]:
      زاری اندر نی ز گفتار منست
      زیر چنگ از نالهٔ زار من است
      rāzē andar nay zi guftār-i man ast
      zēr-i čang az nāla-yi zār-i man ast
      The mystery in the flute is from my speech;
      The treble of the harp is from my forlorn cries.
      (Classical romanization)

Derived terms[edit]

Preposition[edit]

زیر (zir-e)

  1. (with ezâfe) under; underneath; beneath
    Synonym: تحت (taht-e)
    زیر میزzir-e mizunder the table
    زیر نظر ستادzir-e nazar-e setâdunder the oversight of EIKO
    • 1967, Samad Behrangi, ماهی سیاه کوچولو [The Little Black Fish]:
      خانه ی ماهی کوچولو و مادرش پشت سنگ سیاهی بود؛ زیر سقفی از خزه.
      xâne-ye mâhi-ye kučulu o mâdar-eš pošt-e sang-e siyâhi bud; zir-e saqfi az xaze.
      The house of the little fish and his mother was behind a black stone, under a roof of moss.

Adjective[edit]

زیر (zir)

  1. under; below
    این کلمه می‌تواند به موارد زیر اشاره داشته باشد.
    in kalame mi-tavânad be mavâred-e zir ešâre dâšte bâšad.
    This word may refer to the topics below.
  2. high-pitched
    Synonym: نازک (nâzok)

Derived terms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

زیر (zir-)

  1. sub-

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Arabic: زِير (zīr)
  • Azerbaijani: zil
  • → Hindustani:
    Hindi: ज़ेर (zer)
    Urdu: زیر (zer)
  • ? Ottoman Turkish: زل (zil), زیل (zil)
  • Pashto: زير (zir)

References[edit]

  • Ačaṙean, Hračʿeay (1973), “զիլ”, in Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Armenian Etymological Dictionary] (in Armenian), volume II, 2nd edition, a reprint of the original 1926–1935 seven-volume edition, Yerevan: University Press, page 95a
  • Horn, Paul (1893) Grundriss der neupersischen Etymologie (in German), Strasbourg: K.J. Trübner, § 680, pages 258—259
  • Hübschmann, Heinrich (1895) Persische Studien [Persian Studies] (in German), Strasbourg: K.J. Trübner, page 71
  • Hübschmann, Heinrich (1897) Armenische Grammatik. 1. Theil: Armenische Etymologie (in German), Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, page 265
  • Rastorgujeva, V. S.; Edelʹman, D. I. (2000) Etimologičeskij slovarʹ iranskix jazykov [Etymological Dictionary of Iranian Languages] (in Russian), volume 1, Moscow: Vostochnaya Literatura, page 82