หัวเมือง

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Thai[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From หัว (hǔua, head (body upper part; chief; leader; situated at the top or front; etc.)) +‎ เมือง (mʉʉang, city; country; nation; state; town; etc.); literally "head city" or "head of city".

Pronunciation[edit]

Orthographic หัวเมือง
h ạ w e m ụ̄ ɒ ŋ
Phonemic หัว-เมือง
h ạ w – e m ụ̄ ɒ ŋ
Paiboon hǔua-mʉʉang
(standard) IPA(key) /hua̯˩˩˦.mɯa̯ŋ˧/

Noun[edit]

หัวเมือง (hǔua-mʉʉang)

  1. any city in a country, other than the capital city; the provinces.
  2. (colloquial) a remote city; a hinterland.
  3. (colloquial) another city; any city other than the one the speaker belongs to or is living in.
  4. (archaic) a vassal state.
  5. (archaic). the head of a city; the ruler of a city.
    • Defeat of the Yuan:
      หัวเมืองคิดใคร่สู้ สงคราม
      Hua-mueang khit khrai su · songkhram. [RTGS]
      [huä˩˥.mɯːä̃ŋ˧ kʰit̚˥ kʰräj˥˩ suː˥˩ · sõŋ˩˥.kʰrä̃ːm˧] [IPA]
      City chiefs wanted to engage in the war.
    • Defeat of the Yuan:
      หัวเมืองหัวหมื่นแกล้ว การรณ
      Hua-mueang hua-muen klaeo · kan ron. [RTGS]
      [huä˩˥.mɯːä̃ŋ˧ huä˩˥.mɯ̃ːn˨˩ klɛːw˥˩ · kä̃ːn˧ rõn˧] [IPA]
      City rulers and warriors are all skilled in warfare.
    • Defeat of the Yuan:
      หัวเมืองขุนหมื่นพร้อม พันแหน แห่นา
      Hua-mueang khun muen phrom · phan haen · hae na. [RTGS]
      [huä˩˥.mɯːä̃ŋ˧ kʰũn˩˥ mɯ̃ːn˨˩ pʰrɔ̃ːm˦˥ · pʰä̃n˧ hɛ̃ːn˩˥ · hɛː˨˩ näː˧] [IPA]
      City heads, counts, barons, and baronets are all present in the parade.