ἄνθρωπος

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Ancient Greek[edit]

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Etymology[edit]

From Mycenaean Greek 𐀀𐀵𐀫𐀦 ‎(a-to-ro-qo), of uncertain origin. Scholars used to consider it to be a compound from ἀνήρ ‎(anḗr, man) and ὤψ ‎(ṓps, face, appearance, look) "he who looks like a man". However, in that case a δ ‎(d) would be expected to develop by epenthesis, as in the genitive ἀνδρός ‎(andrós), yielding *ἀνδρωπος ‎(*andrōpos). Beekes (Etymological Dictionary of Greek, 2009:106) argues that since no convincing Indo-European etymology has been found, the word is probably of Pre-Greek origin; he connects the word with the word δρώψ ‎(drṓps, man) (according to Beekes (2009:xxix): "Shift of aspiration is found in some cases: θριγκός / τριγχός, ἀθραγένη / ἀνδράχνη"). Romain Garnier proposed another etymology in his 2007 article « Nouvelles réflexions étymologiques autour du grec ἄνθρωπος », deriving it from Proto-Indo-European *n̥dʰreh₃kʷó- ‎(that which is below), hence "earthly, human".

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Noun[edit]

ἄνθρωπος ‎(ánthrōposm, f ‎(genitive ἀνθρώπου); second declension

  1. human being, person (as opposed to gods); man, woman
  2. (philosophical) man, humanity
  3. (sometimes in the plural) all human beings, mankind
  4. (in feminine, derogatory) female slave

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