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See also: 𠚤, , , 𖿠, and 𖿡
U+3005, 々
IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK

[U+3004]
CJK Symbols and Punctuation
[U+3006]

Chinese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Simplified from , variant of (“same (used as iteration mark)”), written in cursive.[1]

Punctuation mark[edit]

  1. (informal) Ideographic iteration mark, indicating that the previous hanzi should be repeated.

Usage notes[edit]

In Japanese, the symbol is used in any kind of writing. In Chinese, it is sometimes used in casual horizontal writing (or calligraphy) to indicate a repeated character, but not in formal writing, in print. More often, is used (but still only casually), or sometimes the older . Usually, however, the character is simply written twice, without the use of any of the above symbols.


Japanese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (in vertical writing, now rare)

Etymology[edit]

Simplified from , variant of (same (used as iteration mark)), written in cursive.[2]

Punctuation mark[edit]

  1. Ideographic iteration mark, indicating that the previous kanji should be repeated. The repeated character might not have the same pronunciation as the first due to rendaku.
    (mokumoku, silent, mute, tacit)
    (hayabaya, promptly)
    (sasaki, Sasaki (a Japanese surname))
    (mukashimukashi, once upon a time)
    (tokidoki, occasionally, sometimes)
    (hisabisa, long-absent)
    (iroiro, various)
    (hibi, daily)
    (shimajima, islands)
    (tokorodokoro, here and there)

Usage notes[edit]

In Japanese, this mark is formally called 漢字返し (kanji-gaeshi, kanji repeater) or 同の字点 (dō no jiten, same-character mark). More casually, it is called noma since it looks like a combination of the katakana ノマ (noma), 繰り返し (kurikaeshi, repeating), 同じ (onaji, same), or 同じく (onajiku, same).

々 is generally used within a word, and not between words. For example, (しょう)(がっ)(こう)(こう)(ちょう) (shōgakkō kōchō, president of elementary school) will NOT change into (しょう)(がっ)(こう)(こう)(ちょう) (shōgakkō kōchō). There are some exceptions:

  1. highly used words such ほげほげ(ちょう)(ちょう)(かい) (Hogehogechō chōkai, Foobar Town town meeting).
  2. Reduplication of the same kanji can imply that an unfortunate thing will happen again. For example, (けっ)(こん)(しき)(しき)(じょう) (kekkonshiki shiki, wedding ceremony ceremony site) can imply that they could get a divorce and also remarry, so the second kanji will be replaced by "々" (i.e. (けっ)(こん)(しき)(しき)(じょう) (kekkonshiki shiki)).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “漢字文化資料館 漢字 Q&A コーナー Q0009 「々」はなんと読むのですか?”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[1], accessed 27 September 2010, archived from the original on 21 June 2012
  2. ^ “漢字文化資料館 漢字 Q&A コーナー Q0009 「々」はなんと読むのですか?”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[2], accessed 27 September 2010, archived from the original on 21 June 2012