何処

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Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
いず
Grade: 2
Grade: 6
Irregular

/idu//izu/

From Old Japanese.

Pronoun[edit]

何処 (hiragana いず, rōmaji izu, historical hiragana いづ)

  1. Alternative spelling of (where)

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
いず
Grade: 2

Grade: 6
Irregular

/iduku//izuku/

From Old Japanese. Compound of (idu-, interrogative prefix) + (-ku, suffix indicating a place).

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

何処 (hiragana いずく, rōmaji izuku, historical hiragana いづく)

  1. (archaic) interrogative demonstrative; where
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 802), text here
       () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () [Man'yōgana]
       (うり) ()めば ()ども (おも)ほゆ (くり) ()めばまして (しぬ)ばゆいづくより (きた)りしものぞまなかひにもとなかかりて (やす) () ()さぬ [Modern spelling]
      uri hameba kodomo omōyu kuri hameba mashite shinubayu izuku yori kitarishimo zo manakai ni motonaka karite yasui shinasanu
      When I eat melon, I remember my children; when I eat chestnuts, even more I recall them. Whence did they come to me? Before my eyes they will linger, and I cannot sleep in peace.[2]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
いず
Grade: 2

Grade: 6
Irregular

/iduku//iduko//izuko/

From izuku above, historical iduku. Via analogy with the proximal and non-proximal pronouns ここ (koko) and そこ (soko), respectively, both of which end in -o, the final -u became -o.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

何処 (hiragana いずこ, rōmaji izuko, historical hiragana いづこ)

  1. (archaic) interrogative demonstrative; where
    • c. 935, Tosa Nikki (page 22)[3]
      かく ()ひつゝ、 ()ぎゆく。おもしろき (ところ) (ふね) ()せて、「こゝやいづこ」と ()ひければ、「 () () (とまり)」と ()ひけり。
      kaku iitsutsu, kogiyuku, omoshiroki tokoro ni fune o yosete, "kokoya izuko" to toikereba, "Tosa-no-tomari" to ii keri.
      While we thus beguiled the time by composing stanzas and the like, the vessel gradually pursued her way and we arrived at a place most charming on account of its scenery. When I asked its name, I was told it was a harbor named Tosa.[4]
    • 905, Kokin Wakashū (book 3 poem 166; also Hyakunin Isshu, poem 36)
       (なつ) ()はまだ (よひ)ながら ()けぬるを (くも)いづこ (つき)やどるらむ
      natsu no yo wa mada yoi nagara akenuru o kumo no izuko ni tsuki yadoruran
      the summer night wanes while the hours of the evening have hardly passed―whereabouts in the clouds has the moon taken her lodgings?[5]
    1086, Goshūi Wakashū (book 4, poem 333; also Hyakunin Isshu, poem 70)
     (さび)しさに宿 (やど)をたち ()でて (なが)むればいづこもおなじ (あき)夕暮 (ゆふぐれ)
    sabishisa ni yado o tachi-idete nagamureba izuko mo onaji aki no yūgure
    When, in loneliness, I step outside my hut and gaze around, it's the same everywhere... autumn dusk.[6]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
いど
Grade: 2

Grade: 6
Irregular

/iduko//idoko/

From izuko above, historical iduko. Continuing the analogy with the proximal and non-proximal pronouns ここ (koko) and そこ (soko), respectively, both of which end in -oko, the medial -u- changes to -o- resulting in idoko.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)

Pronoun[edit]

何処 (hiragana いどこ, rōmaji idoko)

  1. (archaic) interrogative demonstrative; where

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2

Grade: 6
Irregular

/idoko//doko/

From idoko above. The interrogative association of /idu-/ → /ido-/ has now been lost. Continuing the analogy with the proximal and non-proximal pronouns ここ (koko) and そこ (soko), respectively, both of which are two mora in length, the initial i- drops off resulting in the two mora doko. Now the modern spelling for where.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

何処 (hiragana どこ, rōmaji doko)

  1. interrogative demonstrative; where
    新宿駅 (しんじゅくえき)どこですか。
    Shinjuku eki wa doko desu ka.
    Where is Shinjuku station?

Usage notes[edit]

  • The hiragana spelling (どこ) is preferred to the kanji spelling (何処), which is rarely used.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ J. Thomas Rimer (2010) The Blue-Eyed Tarokaja: A Donald Keene Anthology, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-2315-1520-0, page 181
  3. ^ Hasegawa, Masaharu; Yūichirō Imanishi, Hiroshi Itō, Hiroshi Yoshioka (1989) Shin Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 24: Tosa Nikki, Kagerō Nikki, Murasaki Shikibu Nikki, Sarashina Nikki, Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, ISBN 4-00-240024-7
  4. ^ Ki, Tsurayuki; Flora Best Harris (1891) Log of a Japanese journey from the province of Tosa to the capital / by Tsurayuki ; with illustrations by Toshio Aoki., Meadville, PA: Flood & Vincent
  5. ^ Makoto Ueda, editor (2012) Far Beyond the Field: Haiku by Japanese Women (Translations from the Asian classics), Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-2315-0279-6
  6. ^ John Corrigan, editor (2008) The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Emotion (Oxford Handbooks), reprint edition, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-1951-7021-0, page 83