Reconstructed by Ringe from an alternating suffix *-nō- (singular) ~ *-na- (nonsingular), from Proto-Indo-European *-néh₂- ~ *-nh₂-, from n-infix presents to laryngeal-final roots that were reanalysed as a separate suffix (as in several other branches).
- Forms fientive verbs, with a sense of 'to become (the base)'.
These verbs are always intransitive, so there are no passive forms. They seemed to have originally lacked a past participle as well.
|active voice||passive voice|
This suffix was preserved as a separate class only in Gothic. In Old High German, it mostly merged with the third weak class, while in the other descendants it merged with the second weak class.
- Old English: -nian
- Old High German: -nen
- Old Norse: -na
- Gothic: -𐌽𐌰𐌽 (-nan)