From the name of a southern Gaulish tribe, the Volcae. Historically the tribe's name has been linked to an animal, possibly Proto-Celtic *wolkos (“hawk”) (cf. the personal names Gaulish Catuvolcus and Welsh Cadwalch (“Battle-hawk”)), or alternatively (but less likely) Proto-Celtic *ulkʷos (“wolf”), in turn from Proto-Indo-European *wĺ̥kʷos, as Caesar described the Celts having fought with huge dogs.
- Old English: wealh
- Old Frankish: *walh
- Old High German: walh, walah
- Proto-Norse: ᚹᚨᛚᚺᚨᚲᚢᚱᚾᛖ (walhakurne) (dative singular of a compound meaning "foreign grain", taken to be a kenning for "gold", attested on the Tjurkö 1 bracteate)
- Proto-Slavic: *volxъ
- ^ Patrizia de Bernardo (2008), "Linguistically Celtic Ethnonyms: towards a classification", in: Juan Luís García Alonso (ed.), Celtic and Other Languages in Ancient Europe, Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, p. 103
- ^ Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico