Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/h₂welh₁-

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Alternative reconstructions[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Possibly connected to *welh₁- (to choose, wish).(Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Root[edit]

*h₂welh₁-[3]

  1. to rule
  2. strong, powerful
Derived terms[edit]


  • *h₂wl̥-né-h₁-ti ~ *h₂wl̥-n-h₁-énti (nasal-infix present)[4][5]
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite: 𒄷𒌌𒇷𒄑𒍣 (ḫu-ul-le-ez-zi /hullezi/, to smash, to defeat)
  • *h₂wl̥h₁-eh₁-(ye)-ti[6]
  • *h₂wl̥-né-h₂-ti[7]
  • *welh₁-t ~ *wl̥h₁-ént (root aorist)[8]
    • Germanic: *wulþǭ (1st p. past tense)
      • Germanic: *waldaną (see there for further descendants) (back formation)[8]
  • *h₂wl̥h₁-etro-s[9]
  • *wolh₁-neh₂-mō ~ *wl̥h₁-neh₂-m̥n-és[10]
  • *h₂wl̥h₁-ont-s[11][12]
    • Tocharian: [Term?]
      • Tocharian A: [Term?] (wāl, king)
      • Tocharian B: [Term?] (walo, king)
  • *h₂wl̥h₁-o-s[13]
    • Celtic: *walos (see there for further descendants)
  • *h₂wélh₁-ti-s ~ *h₂wl̥h₁-téy-s[14]
    • Celtic: *wlatis (see there for further descendants)

Extended form *h₂welh₁-dʰ-.

  • *h₂wolh₁-dʰh₁-eh₁-ti (éh₁-stative)[15]
    • Balto-Slavic: [Term?][1]
      • Slavic: *volděti (to rule) (see there for further descendants)
  • *h₂wolh₁-dʰh₁-éye-ti (eye-iterative)[16]
  • *h₂wolh₁-dʰ-tis
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Balto-Slavic:
    • Balto-Slavic:
      • Old Prussian: weldisnan sg (inheritance, acc)
    • Balto-Slavic:
      • Slavic: [Term?]
        • Old Church Slavonic: владь (vladĭ, power)

Etymology 2[edit]

Often compared to *welh₃- (to pluck) and *welH- (to turn).

Root[edit]

*h₂welh₁-[18]

  1. hair; wool
Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Derksen, Rick (2008) , “*volděti; *voldati”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 524
  2. ^ Derksen, Rick (2015) , “valdyti”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 485–486
  3. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  4. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) , “valēō”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 651: “*h₂ul-ne-h₁ti, *h₂ul-n-h₁enti”
  5. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008) , “ḫullezi-/ḫull-”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 358: “*h₂ul-né-h₁-ti, *h₂ul-n-h₁-énti”
  6. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) , “valēō”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 651: “*h₂ulh₁-eh₁”
  7. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009) , “*wal-na”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, pages 402: “*wl-neh₂-”
  8. 8.0 8.1 Kroonen, Guus (2013) , “*waldan-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 569: “*h₂ulh₁-t-”
  9. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009) , “*walo-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, pages 402: “*wlh₂etro-”
  10. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009) , “*walo-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, pages 402: “*wolH-neh₂-(mōn)”
  11. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) , “*waldan-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 569: “*h₂wlh₁-ont-”
  12. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) , “valēō”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 651: “*ulH-nt”
  13. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009) , “*walo-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, pages 402: “*wlHo-”
  14. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) , “valēō”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 651: “*ulHti-”
  15. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) , “*waldan-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 569: “*h₂wolh₁-dʰh₁-eh₁”
  16. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) , “*waldan-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 569: “*h₂wolh₁-dʰh₁-eie-”
  17. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008) , “*vȏlstь”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 526
  18. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume III, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 1139