Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/gʰer-

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*gʰer-

  1. to rub
  2. to stroke
  3. to grind
  4. to remove

Extensions[edit]

  • *gʰrey-
  • >? *gʰrenHdʰ-[1] (or *gʷʰrenHdʰ-, based on Latin frendō[2][3]; or *gʰrend-, to explain perhaps the Baltic[4] and Greek[5] forms)
    • *gʰrénHdʰ-(e)-ti (root present)
      • Proto-Albanian:
      • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *grenˀd-?
        • Lithuanian: grę́sti (to scrape, scratch)
      • Proto-Germanic: *grindaną (to grind) (see there for further descendants)
    • *gʰrenHdʰ-éh₂
      • Proto-Germanic: *grindō (gravel; sand; pebbles) (see there for further descendants)
    • *gʰrenHdʰ-o-
    • *gʰrónHdʰ-o-m (root present)
      • Proto-Germanic: *grandą
        • Proto-West Germanic: *grand
          • Low German: grand (sand)
        • Icelandic: grand n (grain, particle, little bit)
    • ? *gʰrónHd-ro-s
      • Proto-Hellenic: *kʰróndros
        • >? Ancient Greek: χόνδρος (khóndros, small mass; corn of grain; cartilage) (see there for further descendants)
  • *gʰrewd- ~ *gʰr-eu-d- ~ *gʷrod-
    • Armenian:
      • Old Armenian: կորկոտ (korkot) < *gʷo-gʷrod- (perhaps)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
      • Lithuanian: graudìnti (to move, touch)
      • Proto-Slavic: *gruditi (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
      • Proto-Baltic:
        • Lithuanian: grúodas (frost; frozen mud or street dirt)
        • Proto-Finnic: *routa (frost on the ground) (see there for further descendants)
      • Proto-Slavic: *grùda (heap, lump) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Germanic: *grautaz (coarse, crude; big, large) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Germanic: *greutaną (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Germanic: *greutą (grit, rubble) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Germanic: *grautiz
    • Proto-Germanic: *grūtiz, *grūtą
  • *gʰrewh₂-, *gʰreh₂w-[8]
    • *gʰrewh₂-ǵ(ʰ)-
      • *gʰrowǵ(ʰ)os
        • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *grauˀźas (crushed stone, gravel)
          • Latvian: gruži pl (crushed stone)
          • Lithuanian: gráužas, graũžas (gravel, coarse sand)
          • Proto-Slavic: *gruzъ (crushed stone, gravel) (see there for further descendants)
    • *gʰrówh₂-mn̥ or *gʰróh₂u-mn̥
      • Proto-Hellenic: *kʰrṓwmə
        • Ancient Greek: χρῶμα (khrôma, color; skin) (see there for further descendants)
    • *gʰrówh₂-s or *gʰróh₂u-s
      • Proto-Hellenic: *kʰrṓws
        • Ancient Greek: χρώς (khrṓs, color; skin) (see there for further descendants)
        • ? Mycenaean Greek: 𐀀𐀒𐀫𐀸𐀁 (a-ko-ro-we-e /(h)akʰroweʰe/)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
      • Latvian: gŗaût (to destroy, demolish, bring down)
      • Lithuanian: griáuti (to destroy, demolish)
    • Proto-Hellenic:
      • >? Ancient Greek: ἔχραον (ékhraon, attack, assault)
    • Proto-Italic: *grūō
      • Latin: *gruō
        • ? Latin: ingruō (make an onslaught upon, attack, assail, fall on, threaten)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Proto-Italic: *grandis
      • Latin: grandis (large) (see there for further descendants)

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world, Oxford University Press, page 169: “*ghrendh- ‘grind’”
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “frendō, -ere”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 241
  3. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*grindan-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 190
  4. ^ Derksen, Rick (2015), “gręsti”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 186
  5. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “χόνδρος”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 1643
  6. ^ Orel, Vladimir E. (2000) A concise historical grammar of the Albanian language: reconstruction of Proto-Albanian[1], Leiden, Boston, Köln: Brill, →ISBN, page 251
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “κέγχρος”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 662
  8. ^ Derksen, Rick (2015), “griauti”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 187