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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative reconstructions[edit]


Hittite ḫamank- 'to tie' suggests that the earlier form should be reconstructed not as *h₂enǵʰ- but as *h₂emǵʰ-, which weakens the argument for a (genetic) relation to Proto-Uralic *aŋke 'painfully constricted'. Perhaps related to *h₂eng-, *h₂enk-, *h₂eḱ-



  1. to constrict, tighten, compress
  2. narrow, tight
  3. distressed, anxious

Derived terms[edit]

  • *h₂énǵʰ-e-ti (thematic root present)
    • Hellenic:
      • Ancient Greek: ἄγχω (ánkhō, I compress, strangle)
    • Italic: *anɣō
      • Latin: angō (I cause pain)
  • *h₂énǵʰ-u-s ~ *h₂n̥ǵʰ-éw-s (see there for further descendants)
  • *h₂enǵʰ-us-t-
    • Proto-Germanic: *angustiz (narrowness, tightness, anxiety)
    • Italic:
      • Latin: angustus (narrow, close) (see there for further descendants)
  • *h₂énǵʰ-os
    • Proto-Germanic: *angazaz (worry, grief, anxiety) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Hellenic:
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *Hánȷ́ʰas (see there for further descendants)
  • *h₂enǵʰ-s-yo-
  • Unsorted formations:


  1. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN