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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Of disputed origin[1][2]; possibly from *weh₁y- (to twist; to wrap) +‎ *-ō[3][4][5], compare Ancient Greek ὑιήν (huiḗn, grapevine), from *wihy-ḗn[5], Latin vītis (vine), from *wéh₁itis, or perhaps borrowed from either Proto-Semitic *wayn-, or Proto-Kartvelian *ɣwino-.[2][6][7][8] Perhaps ultimately from unknown Mediterranean language.[9][10]


*wéyh₁ō m[11][12][8]

  1. wine
  2. vine


Athematic, amphikinetic
nominative *wéyh₁ō
genitive *wih₁nés
singular dual plural
nominative *wéyh₁ō *wéyh₁onh₁(e) *wéyh₁ones
vocative *wéyh₁on *wéyh₁onh₁(e) *wéyh₁ones
accusative *wéyh₁onm̥ *wéyh₁onh₁(e) *wéyh₁onm̥s
genitive *wih₁nés *? *wih₁nóHom
ablative *wih₁nés *? *wih₁n̥mós
dative *wih₁néy *? *wih₁n̥mós
locative *wih₁én, *wih₁éni *? *wih₁n̥sú
instrumental *wih₁néh₁ *? *wih₁n̥bʰí

Derived terms[edit]

  • *wéyh₁n-o-m[7]
  • *wóyh₁n-o-s[5][7][3]
  • *wih₁-on-[12][4][7]
    • Anatolian: [Term?]
      • Hittite: 𒃾𒅖 (GEŠTIN-iš /wiyanis/, wine)
      • Luwian:
        Cuneiform: [script needed] (winiya-)
  • *wih₁n-yó-s[7]
    • Anatolian: [Term?]
      • Hittite: [Term?] (/*winiyant-/, wine (deified))
      • Luwian:
        Anatolian Hieroglyphs: [Anatolian Hieroglyphs needed] (wiyan(i)-), [Anatolian Hieroglyphs needed] (win(i)-, of wine)
  • Kartvelian: *ɣwino- (perhaps[6]) (see there for further descendants)
  • Semitic: *wayn- (perhaps[6]) (see there for further descendants)


  1. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2011) Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction, revised and corrected by Michiel de Vaan, 2nd edition, Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  2. 2.0 2.1 Fortson, Benjamin W. (2010) Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, second edition, Oxford: Blackwell, page 38
  3. 3.0 3.1 Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “οἶνος”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 1058-1059
  4. 4.0 4.1 De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “vīnum”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 680
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World (Oxford Linguistics), New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, pages 166-167
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Nichols, J. (1997), “The epicentre of the Indo-European linguistic spread”, in Blench, R.; M. Spriggs, editor, Archaeology and Language I: Theoretical and Methodological Orientations[1], London: Routledge, page 126
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Fenwick, Rhona S. H. (2017), “An Indo-European origin of Kartvelian names for two maloid fruits”, in Iran and the Caucasus[2], page 2
  8. 8.0 8.1 Klimov, G. A. (1994) Drevnejšije indojevropeizmy kartvelʹskix jazykov [The Oldest Indo-Europeanisms in Kartvelian Languages] (in Russian), Moscow: Nasledie, →ISBN, pages 79-82
  9. ^ Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  10. ^ Klein, Jared S.; Joseph, Brian D.; Fritz, Matthias, editor (2017–2018), “Chapter VIII: Italic”, in Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics: An International Handbook (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft [Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science]; 41.2), Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, →ISBN, § The lexicon of Italic, page 832
  11. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (1987a), “On Indo-European ‘wine’”, in Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft, pages 21-26
  12. 12.0 12.1 Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008), “u̯ii̯an-”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 1012
  13. ^ Olsen, Birgit Anette (2017), “Armenian”, in Mate Kapović, editor, The Indo-European Languages (Routledge Language Family Series), 2nd edition, London, New York: Routledge, page 422
  14. ^ Martirosyan, Hrach (2010), “gini”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 214–215
  15. ^ Orel, Vladimir (2000) A Concise Historical Grammar of the Albanian Language, Leiden: Brill, page 50
  16. ^ Demiraj, Bardhyl (1997), “vër/ë,-a”, in Albanische Etymologien: Untersuchungen zum albanischen Erbwortschatz [Albanian Etymologies: Investigations into the Albanian Inherited Lexicon] (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 7) (in de), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, page 414