Reconstruction:Proto-Mongolic/ci

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Asterisk.svg
This Proto-Mongolic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Mongolic[edit]

Reconstruction[edit]

Nugteren derives earlier *cï by comparison with other second-person pronouns, but all descendants clearly derive from *ci and some authorities even reject *ï as a separate phoneme.

Internal reconstruction also allows reconstructing earlier *tï/*ti.

Etymology[edit]

Somewhat similar to Proto-Turkic *sen and Proto-Tungusic *si. Compare Turkish sen, Evenki си (si).

Whether this similarity is due to inheritance, borrowing or coincidence is a highly contentious question among specialists in these languages which is of crucial significance for the Altaic debate.

Adjective[edit]

*ci

  1. you (personal pronoun)

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle Mongolian:
  • Mongolian:
    • Classical: ᠴᠢ (či)
    • Khalkha: чи (či)
    • Ordos: /t͡ʃʰi/
  • Buryat: ши (ši)
  • Khamnigan Mongol: či
  • Kalmyk: чи (çi)
  • Daur: shii
  • Eastern Yugur: ci
  • Monguor:
    • Mangghuer: qi
    • Mongghul: qi
  • Bonan: ci
  • Kangjia: ci
  • Dongxiang: chi
  • Mogholi: ci

Further reading[edit]

  • Nugteren, Hans (2011) Mongolic phonology and the Qinghai-Gansu languages (dissertation)‎[1], Utrecht: LOT, page 300-301
  • Janhunen, Juha (2013) Personal pronouns in Core Altaic. In Shared Grammaticalization With Special Focus on the Transeurasian Languages [Studies in Language Companion Series 132], Martine Robbeets & Hubert Cuyckens (eds)
  • Schütz, Edmond (1974) Remarks On Altaic Personal Pronouns. In Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, Vol. 28, No. 1