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This Proto-Tungusic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Possibly a loan from Proto-Mongolic *morïn, whence Mongolian морь (mori), Daur mori. Compare also Khitan 𘲜𘰣 (mo.ri), Korean (mal), Japanese (uma).

Moreover, many mainland and Southeast Asian languages have words with similar shape and semantic affinity, such as Old Chinese (OC *mraːʔ), Tibetan རྨང (rmang) and Burmese မြင်း (mrang:) in the Sino-Tibetan branch (see Proto-Sino-Tibetan *k-m-raŋ ~ s-raŋ for more) and Vietnamese ngựa, from Proto-Vietic *m-ŋəːʔ, in the Mon-Khmer branch. See also Proto-Indo-European *márkos, whence English mare and Irish marc.



  1. horse



  • Cincius, V. I. (1975) Sravnitelʹnyj slovarʹ tunguso-manʹčžurskix jazykov: Materialy k etimologičeskomu slovarju [Comparative Dictionary of Tungus-Manchu Languages: Materials for an etymological dictionary] (in Russian), volume 1, Leningrad: Nauka, pages 558-559
  • Kane, Daniel (1989) The Sino-Jurchen Vocabulary of the Bureau of Interpreters (Uralic and Altaic Series; vol. 153), Bloomington, Indiana: Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, Indiana University, →ISBN, page 216.
  • Kane, Daniel (2009) The Kitan language and script (Handbook of Oriental Studies series, Section 8: Uralic & Central Asian Studies; 19), Leiden; Boston: Brill, page 102