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This verb conjugates as a first-group verb ending in -er. Old French conjugation varies significantly by date and by region. The following conjugation should be treated as a guide.


This template is designed to add fully formatted conjugation tables to Old French first-group verbs ending in -er. It must be used under the level 4 header conjugation (conjugation header is level 5 when there are multiple etymologies for a single word). See below for other related templates.

Verbs that end in -ier where the -i- is not part of the stem should use {{fro-conj-ier}}. (For example, in marier and applier the stems are mari- and appli-, respectively, and {{fro-conj-er}} should be used.)

All arguments are optional. For most group-I verbs, it's enough to simply use {{fro-conj-er}} (or {{fro-conj-ier}}, see above), and all the details will be taken care of. For most other group-I verbs, specifically those with stem alternations, it is enough to specify only the press argument to specify a separate stressed present-tense stem, e.g. {{fro-conj-er|press=aim}} for amer or {{fro-conj-er|press=parol}} for parler. Among the details handled automatically are c vs. ç alternations in verbs like dancier and applying the necessary stem modifications in the present subjunctive (e.g. dancier has present singular subjunctive danz, danz, danzt and amer has aim, ains, aint).

For complex real-world examples, look at e.g. {{fro-conj-conoistre}}, {{fro-conj-faire}}, {{fro-conj-valoir}}, {{fro-conj-voloir}}, {{fro-conj-doner}}, {{fro-conj-aler}}, {{fro-conj-estre}}, {{fro-conj-avoir}}, ester, etc.

General comments:

  • Setting an argument to a blank value is equivalent to omitting it; if you really want the value to be empty, use e.g. pret="" or pret=''.
  • More generally, you can enclose any argument value in single or double quotes, which will be stripped off; this can be used to include leading or trailing blanks in an argument's value.
  • There are three main types of arguments: general arguments, stems, and overrides.
  • Stem arguments specify the stem used to generate a particular tense, e.g. pres for the present indicative, sub for the present subjunctive, fut for the future.
  • Overrides specify the value of a particular part, e.g. pres1s for the present indicative first-person singular. These apply after stems have been processed and used to generate the paradigm, overriding a specific part (or in some cases, some of the alternative forms of that part, if there is more than one).
  • If multiple forms end up being specified for a particular part, and some are the same as others, all the duplicates except the first are removed. This happens at the end, after overrides have been applied.

General arguments:

  • inf: the infinitive; if omitted, same as the page title. Rarely needs to be specified, except possibly in templates.
  • aux: the auxiliary verb, either avoir or estre. The default is avoir.
  • refl: should be true if the verb is reflexive. "True" here means any non-blank value.
  • impers: should be true (see above) if the verb is impersonal.
  • prefix: add a prefix to all forms.
  • suffix: add a prefix to all forms.
  • repl: do search/replace on all forms. The value should be of the form FROM/TO,FROM2/TO2,... where FROM will be replaced by TO, and then FROM2 will be replaced by TO2, etc. Literal text normally works fine, but properly these are Lua patterns, which are similar to regular expressions but a bit more limited. This is useful in templates to implement conjugations for verbs with non-standard spellings; e.g. cuvrir uses {{fro-conj-covrir|repl=cov/cuv}} to ensure that the cuv- spelling appears everywhere in place of cov-.
  • comment: override the comment appearing above the conjugation.
  • ir: if true (see above), don't recognize -eir or -oir in the infinitive as an ending; instead, consider the ending to be -ir in such a case. Useful with verbs like oir and cheir, whose stems are o- and che- respectively.
  • ei: if true (see above), use earlier -ei- rather than later -oi- (or listing of both) in various endings and other forms. Automatically set if the infinitive ending is -eir or if old is specified.
  • old: if true (see above), treat this as an "old-style" conjugation. Uses earlier -ei- rather than later -oi-, adds -ṭ onto third-person singular and past-participle forms where appropriate, doesn't convert l or il to u before a consonant, lists -ii- endings but not their later simplified -i- forms.

Comments about stem arguments:

  • The value can either be a single stem, e.g. pres=conoiss for the verb conoistre, or a multipart specification, which directly specifies all six parts for the tense in question.
  • An example of a multipart specification is pres=vois,vai/vais,vas/vait,va/alons/alez/vont for the present tense of aler. Slashes separate parts and commas separate alternatives for a given part. In this case, two alternatives are given for each of the singular parts, e.g. both vois and vai for the first-person singular. You can omit some of the parts by leaving them empty or putting a "-" (but keep the slashes). For example, pres2=///vaillons/vailliez/vaillent would add extra irregular forms in the plural (in this case for the verb valoir), after the forms generated by the stem specified using pres (in this case, it would default to val- if not specified, based on the infinitive).
  • In some cases, specifying a stem for a tense also causes paradigms for related tenses to be generated. In particular, specifying a pres stem also generates corresponding paradigms for the present subjunctive and imperative, specifying a fut stem also generates a corresponding conditional paradigm, and specifying a pret stem also generates a corresponding imperfect subjunctive. In such a case you can e.g. change the stem used for the present subjunctive using sub, or remove the paradigm using sub=-. The imperative works the same way with imp, and the imperfect subjunctive with impsub. However, these related-tense paradigms are not generated when a multipart specification is given. For example, estre specifies the future tense using fut=ier,er/iers,ers/iert,ert/iermes,ermes//ierent,erent|fut2=ser|fut3=estr. This causes three future paradigms to be generated, one directly specified using a multipart specification and the other two generated based on the stems ser- and estr-, with normal endings; but the corresponding conditional paradigms will be generated only based on the stems ser- and estr-.
  • The value of a stem that is given should be the form as it occurs before e and i, and the corresponding stems that would appear before a, o and u are automatically inferred. For example, specifying a value of pres=danc will lead to the stem danç being used before a, o and u. In particular, c becomes ç before a/o/u, g becomes j before a/o/u, qu becomes c before u and gu becomes g before u.
  • The necessary stem modifications that take place in the present indicative singular, the present subjunctive singular of group-I verbs, and the future are automatically applied, e.g. pres=danc will automatically generate first-singular present-indicative danz, and pres=val in a group-III verb will automatically second-singular present indicative vaus and future stem vaudr-.

Present-tense stems:

  • pres: the unstressed stem of the present tense as it occurs before e/i. You rarely if ever need to specify this for group-I verbs, but sometimes do for group-III verbs, esp. those ending in -re. If omitted, inferred from the infinitive.
  • prese: same as 'pres' except that multipart specifications aren't recognized. Use this if you want to specify a multipart specification for the present indicative and still specify a present stem that controls the default subjunctive/imperative/etc. stems.
  • press: the stressed stem of the present tense; the same as 'pres' if not given.
  • ier: should be true if 'pres' is a stem ending in a palatal consonant (i.e. it requires an i before e in endings, e.g. second plural -iez).
  • supe: should be true if the verb requires a supporting -e in the present singular and this cannot be derived from the stem. Rarely needs to be specified.
  • pres2, press2, ier2, supe2; ...; pres9, ...: additional present-tense conjugations. Used for the indicative and subjunctive unless separate subjunctive stems are given. Giving a multipart specifications for 'pres2, pres3, ...' doesn't trigger creation of corresponding subjunctives or imperatives.
  • sub, subs, subier, subsupe; sub2, ...; ...; sub9, ...: present-subjunctive conjugation(s), if different from the indicative. 'sub' is the form before "e/i". 'subs', 'subier', 'subsupe' are the same as 'press', 'ier', 'supe' but applied to the subjunctive stem. Use a "-" for 'sub', 'sub2', ... to suppress creation of a subjunctive conjugation corresponding to a given indicative conjugation. You can also specify a multipart specification for 'sub, sub2, ...' as for 'pres'.
  • imp, imps, impier, impsupe; imp2, ...; ...; imp9, ...: imperative conjugation(s), if different from the present indicative. Works identically to the 'sub' arguments.

Stems for other tenses:

  • fut, fut2, ..., fut9: the future and conditional stem; if omitted, inferred from the present stem. The way the stem is inferred is as follows: for verbs in -ir other than those in -eir/-oir/-lir/-rir/-sir/-ïr, use the present stem plus -ir; otherwise, use the present stem plus -r, making necessary phonetic changes (e.g. voudr- from vol-, covrer- from covrir). You can also specify a multipart specification here, as for 'pres'; this controls the future only. Up to 9 such stems can be given.
  • imperf, imperfier; imperf2, ...; ...; imperf9, ...: the imperfect stem; defaults to the corresponding present stem. 'imperf' is the form before "e/i". 'imperfier' indicates the stem ends in a palatal consonant but currently only has any effect in group-I verbs. You can also specify a multipart specification for 'imperf, imperf2, ...' as for 'pres', or set it to "-" to suppress the creation of a given paradigm when it would normally be created (i.e. when there's a corresponding present stem). Up to 9 such stems can be given.
  • prettype, prettype2, ..., prettype9: the type of the preterite and imperfect subjunctive ('weak-a', 'weak-a2', 'weak-i', 'weak-i2', 'strong-i', 'strong-id', 'weak-u', 'strong-u', 'strong-o', 'strong-st', 'strong-sd'); inferred from 'pres'. For group I verbs, this uses 'weak-a', or 'weak-a2' for -ier verbs. For group II verbs, this uses 'weak-i'. For group III verbs, this uses 'weak-i2' for verbs in -dre/-tre, 'strong-st' for other -re verbs, 'weak-u' for -eir/-oir verbs, and 'weak-i' for -ir/-ïr verbs. Up to 9 types can be given, each associated with a corresponding stem ('pret', 'pret2', ...) or corresponding separate unstressed/stressed stems ('pretu/prets', 'pretu2/prets2', ...).
  • pret, pret2, ..., pret9: the stem of the preterite and imperfect subjunctive, when there aren't separate stressed/unstressed stems; defaults to 'pres'. You can also specify a multipart specification for 'pret, pret2, ...' as for 'pres'; this controls only the preterite. The stems specified should be in the form that they appear before e or i; the corresponding stems for appearing before a, o or u are automatically inferred.
  • pretu, pretu2, ..., pretu9: the unstressed stem of the preterite and imperfect subjunctive; defaults to 'pret' or else 'pres'.
  • prets, prets2, ..., prets9: the stressed stem of the preterite and imperfect subjunctive; defaults to 'pretu', or else 'pret', or else 'pres'.
  • impsub, impsub2, ..., impsub9: the imperfect subjunctive stem (the part up through the first s, e.g. amas for amer). Such stems when given override the corresponding default stem derived from the preterite. You can also specify a multipart specification here, or "-" to suppress the creation of a given paradigm when it would normally be created (i.e. when there's a corresponding preterite type).

Comments about overrides:

  • There are four types of overrides: Those that override the entire part (e.g. pres1s for the present-indicative first singular), those that insert form(s) at the beginning of the part (e.g. pres1s0), those that insert form(s) at the end of the part (e.g. pres1sn), and partial overrides that override a particular form in the part (pres1s1, pres1s2, ...). There are an indefinite number of these, as many as there are parts to be overridden.
  • For any of these arguments, multiple forms can be given, separated by a comma, and will be inserted at the appropriate position (e.g. you can use a partial override to replace one form with multiple forms, or insert multiple forms at the beginning or end).
  • A partial override with a value of "-" deletes the corresponding form.


  • pres1s, pres2s, pres3s, pres1p, pres2p, pres3p; pres1s0, ...; pres1sn, ...; pres1s1, ...; pres1s2, ...; ...: overrides for particular present indicative verb parts.
  • imperf1s, ...: overrides for particular imperfect verb parts.
  • fut1s, ...: overrides for particular future verb parts.
  • cond1s, ...: overrides for particular conditional verb parts.
  • pret1s, ...: overrides for particular preterite verb parts.
  • sub1s, ...: overrides for particular present subjunctive verb parts.
  • impsub1s, ...: overrides for particular imperfect subjunctive verb parts.
  • imp2s, imp1p, imp2p; ...: overrides for particular imperative verb parts. The imperative stem defaults to the present stem.
  • presp, presp0, prespn, presp1, presp2, ...: overrides for the present participle. The present participle stem defaults to the present stem, specifically 'presa'.
  • pastp, pastp0, pastpn, pastp1, pastp2, ...: overrides for the past participle. The past participle defaults to the present stem plus appropriate ending: for group I, -i for group II and group III -ir/-ïr (but not -eir/-oir) verbs, -u for other group III verbs.
  • inf0, infn, inf1, inf2, ..., inf9: overrides for the infinitive. (Plain 'inf' is handled specially and needs to be a single form.)

Some special cases:

  • Verbs in -eier with separate stressed stem in -i- can optionally use {{fro-conj-eier}}. NOTE: Such verbs are generally a non-standard spelling in Old French and should be linked to verbs ending in -oiier.
  • Verbs in -oier with separate stressed stem in -i- can optionally use {{fro-conj-oier}}. NOTE: Such verbs are generally a non-standard spelling in Old French and should be linked to verbs ending in -oiier.
  • Verbs in -oiier with separate stressed stem in -i- can optionally use {{fro-conj-oiier}}. An example is otroiier.
  • {{fro-conj-er}} and {{fro-conj-ier}} are very good at handling most of the spelling changes needed in the first-person singular present indicative and throughout the singular present subjunctive. However, occasionally some verbs will need to specify these forms themselves. Examples:
    1. Verbs whose stem ends in -ill- where the -ll- is pronounced as normal /l/ rather than as a palatal sound (because the second-person singular present subjunctive for these verbs ends in -s whereas it is predicted to end in -z). An example is caviller.
    2. Verbs whose stem ends in -el- and where the third-person singular present subjunctive ends in -eut rather than -eaut (except for verbs in -iel- and -uel-, which are handled correctly). seeler is such an example. Such verbs generally have an -i- or -ē- in their Latin etymon, rather than -e-. (seeler derives from sigillāre.)
    3. vieler, whose stem ends in -iel- and where the third-person singular present subjunctive ends in -eaut rather than -eut (because there is a hiatus between the i and e, and it was formerly viḍeler).
    4. Verbs whose second-person singular present subjunctive ends in -z where this is not predictable (generally because the stem ended in -ḍ- in Early Old French, which later dropped out). An example is loer "to praise", with second-person singular present subjunctive loz.
  • Most verbs requiring a supporting -e- in the first-person singular present indicative and throughout the singular present subjunctive are correctly handled by {{fro-conj-er}} and {{fro-conj-ier}}. However, when the need for the supporting vowel is unpredictable from the stem, the templates {{fro-conj-er-e}} or {{fro-conj-ier-e}} will be needed.

The templates {{fro-conj-er-e}} or {{fro-conj-ier-e}} used to be required in all cases where a supporting -e was needed in the present singular. The vast majority of cases do not require this any more and should be replaced with the use of {{fro-conj-er}} or {{fro-conj-ier}}.


For loer, with irregular second-person singular present subjunctive loz:


See also[edit]