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Borrowed from Oghur[1] before the times of the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin (at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries), from Proto-Turkic *buŕagu. Compare Chuvash пӑру (păru, calf), Old Turkic 𐰉𐰆𐰕𐰍𐰆(buzaɣu), Ottoman Turkish بوزاغی(buzağı, calf). The word can also be found in the Mongolic languages. The form that arrived in the Hungarian language was probably *buraɣu.[2]


  • IPA(key): [ˈborjuː]
  • Hyphenation: bor‧jú


borjú (plural borjúk or borjak)

  1. calf (young cow or bull)

Usage notes[edit]

There are two forms for the possessive third-person with different meanings. Singular:

a tehén borja - the calf of the cow (the mother)
a gazda borjúja - the calf of the farmer (the owner)


a tehén borjai - the calves of the cow
a gazda borjúi - the calves of the farmer


Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative borjú borjúk
accusative borjút borjúkat
dative borjúnak borjúknak
instrumental borjúval borjúkkal
causal-final borjúért borjúkért
translative borjúvá borjúkká
terminative borjúig borjúkig
essive-formal borjúként borjúkként
inessive borjúban borjúkban
superessive borjún borjúkon
adessive borjúnál borjúknál
illative borjúba borjúkba
sublative borjúra borjúkra
allative borjúhoz borjúkhoz
elative borjúból borjúkból
delative borjúról borjúkról
ablative borjútól borjúktól
Inflection (stem in -a-, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative borjú borjak
accusative borjat borjakat
dative borjúnak borjaknak
instrumental borjúval borjakkal
causal-final borjúért borjakért
translative borjúvá borjakká
terminative borjúig borjakig
essive-formal borjúként borjakként
inessive borjúban borjakban
superessive borjún borjakon
adessive borjúnál borjaknál
illative borjúba borjakba
sublative borjúra borjakra
allative borjúhoz borjakhoz
elative borjúból borjakból
delative borjúról borjakról
ablative borjútól borjaktól
Possessive forms of borjú
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. borjúm borjúim
2nd person sing. borjúd borjúid
3rd person sing. borjúja borjúi
1st person plural borjúnk borjúink
2nd person plural borjútok borjúitok
3rd person plural borjújuk borjúik

Derived terms[edit]


  1. ^ Starostin, Sergei; Dybo, Anna; Mudrak, Oleg (2003), “*buŕa-gu”, in Etymological dictionary of the Altaic languages (Handbuch der Orientalistik; VIII.8), Leiden, New York, Köln: E.J. Brill
  2. ^ Zaicz, Gábor. Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (’Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN