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From earlier *extrezmo- < *exterezemo- < *exterisemo-, from Proto-Italic *eksterisemos. Equivalent to exter +‎ -issimus. Same development as postrēmus and suprēmus. Confer with extimus.



extrēmus (feminine extrēma, neuter extrēmum); first/second declension

  1. superlative degree of exter
    1. situated at the end, edge, or tip
      extrēmus liberthe end of a book
      extrēmī digitīone's fingertips
    2. occurring at the end (of a period of time), last
      extrēma ōrātiōthe end of an oration
    3. extreme in degree


First/second-declension adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative extrēmus extrēma extrēmum extrēmī extrēmae extrēma
Genitive extrēmī extrēmae extrēmī extrēmōrum extrēmārum extrēmōrum
Dative extrēmō extrēmō extrēmīs
Accusative extrēmum extrēmam extrēmum extrēmōs extrēmās extrēma
Ablative extrēmō extrēmā extrēmō extrēmīs
Vocative extrēme extrēma extrēmum extrēmī extrēmae extrēma

Derived terms[edit]



extrēmus m (genitive extrēmī); second declension

  1. rear
  2. end


Second-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative extrēmus extrēmī
Genitive extrēmī extrēmōrum
Dative extrēmō extrēmīs
Accusative extrēmum extrēmōs
Ablative extrēmō extrēmīs
Vocative extrēme extrēmī



  • extremus”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • extremus”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • extremus in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • the most distant countries, the world's end: extremae terrae partes
    • (ambiguous) on the edge of the hill: ad extremum tumulum
    • (ambiguous) at the end of the year: exeunte, extremo anno
    • (ambiguous) to touch with the fingertips: extremis digitis aliquid attingere
    • (ambiguous) the last stage of life, one's last days: extrema aetas
    • (ambiguous) the last stage of life, one's last days: extremum tempus aetatis
    • (ambiguous) to give up the ghost: extremum vitae spiritum edere
    • (ambiguous) to inflict a death-blow: plagam extremam or mortiferam infligere
    • (ambiguous) affairs are desperate; we are reduced to extremeties: res ad extremum casum perducta est
    • (ambiguous) affairs are desperate; we are reduced to extremeties: ad extrema perventum est
    • (ambiguous) to be reduced to one's last resource: ad extremum auxilium descendere
    • (ambiguous) to have recourse to extreme measures: descendere ad extrema consilia (Fam. 10. 33. 4)
    • (ambiguous) to go back to the remote ages: repetere ab ultima (extrema, prisca) antiquitate (vetustate), ab heroicis temporibus
    • (ambiguous) at the end of the book: in extremo libro (Q. Fr. 2. 7. 1)
    • (ambiguous) to put the finishing touch to a work: extrema manus accēdit operi (active extremam manum imponere operi)
    • (ambiguous) the rearguard: agmen novissimum (extremum)
  • Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN