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From Proto-Italic *jokos, from Proto-Indo-European *yek- (to speak). Compare Old High German jehan, Welsh iaith, Breton yezh. Cognate with English Yule, Danish Jule, Norwegian Bokmål Jul, Swedish Jul, and Norwegian Nynorsk jol.



iocus m (genitive iocī); second declension

  1. a joke, jest
  2. a form of amusement
  3. pastime, sport
    Synonyms: lūdus, lūsus


Second-declension noun (otherwise or neuter).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative iocus iocī
Genitive iocī iocōrum
Dative iocō iocīs
Accusative iocum iocōs
Ablative iocō iocīs
Vocative ioce iocī

The inflection is irregular. The neuter plural is more likely to denote a collective.

Derived terms[edit]

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  • iocus in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • jocus in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • Carl Meißner, Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • I said it in jest: haec iocatus sum, per iocum dixi
    • (ambiguous) joking apart: extra iocum, remoto ioco (Fam. 7. 11. 3)
    • (ambiguous) to make a joke: ioco uti (Off. 1. 29. 103)
    • (ambiguous) joking apart: extra iocum, remoto ioco (Fam. 7. 11. 3)
  • iocus”, in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898), Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 308